BIRDS of THE WORLD - An Online Bird Book


Muscicapidae is a large family of small birds restricted to the Old World. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, take their prey on the wing. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. They vary 10 to 21 cm. Many species are a dull brown in color. Most have broad, flattened, bill, suited to catching insects in flight, although the few ground foraging species typically have finer bills. They live in almost every environment with a suitable supply of trees, from dense forest to open scrub. The more northerly species migrate south in winter, ensuring a continuous diet of insects.


Order Passeriformes    Family Muscicapidae

Genus Chaimarrornis - 1 species

Redstart, White-capped  Chaimarrornis leucocephalus  Found: southeast Asia
Image by: 1) Ajiith U - India  2) Dibyendu_Ash - India  3) Ron_Knight

Genus Oenanthe
Found in: Europe, Asia, Africa

Wheatear, Arabian  Oenanthe lugentoides  Found: Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Yemen.
Image by: 1) Jack246

Wheatear, Black  Oenanthe leucura  Found: northen Africa, southern Europe
The male has mainly black plumage; white tail, rump. Female has black replaced with white.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi - Morocco  2) Agustin Povedano - Spain

Wheatear, Black-eared  Oenanthe hispanica  Found: southern Europe; northern Africa
The male Black-eared Wheatear has black ear coverts and sometimes black throat; white (breeding) or pale buff (nonbreeding) crown, mantel, throat, underparts. Female has browner plumage.
Image by: 1 Vitaliy Khustochka - Ukraine  2) Mark Jobling - Greece    3) Cristobal Rueda  4) Michael Sveikutis female

Wheatear, Capped  Oenanthe pileata  Found:  Africa
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - specimen in Nairobi National Museum, Kenya  2, 3, 4) Dick near De Hoop, South Africa 

Wheatear, Cyprus  Oenanthe cypriaca  Found: northeast Africa
Image by: 1) Michael_Sveikutis - Cyprus  2) Collieston_Birder
1) Nonbreeding male 2) Breeding male

Wheatear, Desert  Oenanthe deserti  Found: Asia, Africa
Image by:  1, 2) Hiyashi Haka  3) Ainars Aunins 3) Alastair Rae

Wheatear, Finsch's  Oenanthe finschii  Found: northwest Africa, Asia
The male Finsch's Wheatear has white crown, nape, central back, underparts; rest black. Female has gray-brown upperparts; buff breast; white belly.
Image by: 1) Marcel_Holyoak 2) Durzan_Cirano

Wheatear, Hooded  Oenanthe monacha  Found: Africa, Asia
The male Hooded Wheatear has black upperparts, upper-breast; white crown, lower-breast, belly. Female has brown plumage; lighter underparts.
Image by: 1, 2) Marcel_Holyoak - Jordan

Wheatear, Hume's  Oenanthe albonigra  Found: southwest Asia
Image by: 1, 2) Tamsin_Carlisle

Wheatear, Isabelline  Oenanthe isabellina  Found: Asia, Africa
Image by: 1) Sergey Yeliseev    2) Lip Kee Yap - Kutch, Gujerat, India

Wheatear, Mountain also Mountain Chat  Oenanthe monticola  Found: Africa
The Mountain Wheatear has a distinctive tail pattern, with a white rump and outer tail feathers. Male has variable plumage; always white shoulder patch; may have white crown; darker plumage may be pale gray to black. Female has mainly dark brown plumage;  white rump and outer tail.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Namib Desert Lodge, Namibia  2) Cristiano Crolle -  Namib Naukluft, Namibia   3, 4) Hans Hillewaert - Welwitschia Plains, Namibia 
1, 2) Female 3, 4) Male

Wheatear, Mourning  Oenanthe lugens  Found: northwest Africa, Middle East
The mourning wheatear is split from Abyssinian wheatear (Oenanthe lugubris), which is the species found south of the Sahara.
Image by: 1) PS_Jeremy - Jordan  2) Rachid - Egypt 

Wheatear, Red-breasted  Oenanthe bottae  Found: Eritrea, Ethiopia, southwest Saudi Arabia
The Red-breasted has dull red breast; black eye-line.
Image by: 1) Veli_Pohjonen - Ethiopia

Wheatear, Red-rumped  Oenanthe moesta  Found: northern Africa
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi  2) Brendan_Ryan

Wheatear, Kurdish  also Rufous-tailed Wheatear    Oenanthe xanthoprymna  Found: northeast Africa, Asia
The male Kurdish Wheatear has brownish-gray upperparts; gray crown, nape; black face, throat; white supercilium,; white or buff underparts; orange rump. Female similar but more muted; dark face and throat replaced by gray eye-patch.
The Kurdish Wheaterr used to include the Red-tailed Wheatear.
Image by: 1) Henrik_Gronvold  2) Oscar_Swartz - Cyprus

Wheatear, Red-tailed also Afghan Wheatear  Oenanthe chrysopygia  Found: northeast Africa, southwest Asia
The Red-tailed Wheatear has grayish-brown upperparts; grayish-white underparts; pale supercilium; faint white eye-ring; rufous tinge to ear-coverts; reddish rump, outer tail feathers. Male has black between eyes and bill. Used to be considered subspecies of Kurdish Wheatear.
Image by: 1) PksPks  2) Tarique_Sani  3) Gobind Sagar Bhardwaj

Wheatear, Somali  Oenanthe phillipsi  Found: Ethiopia, Somalia
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans

Wheatear, Heuglin's  Oenanthe heuglini  Found: northern Africa
Image by: 1) michaelandhelencox - Uganda  2) Lars_Peterrson - Cameroon

Wheatear, Abyssinian Oenanthe lugubris  Found: Ethiopia, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Tanzania
The mourning wheatear is split from Abyssinian wheatear (Oenanthe lugubris), which is the species found south of the Sahara.
Image by: 1, 6, 7) Darren Bellerby - Hell's Gate National Park, Kenya  3, 5) Joseph Mochoge - Gilgil, Kenya    2, 4, 9) Dick Daniels - Fish Eagle Lodge, Knysna Lagoon  8) Alastair Rae 
1, 2, 3, 4) Female   5 - 9) Male

Wheatear, Northern Oenanthe oenanthe   Found: northeast Canada, Europe, Asia, Africa
The Northern Wheatear has white belly and tail.  Breeding male has gray upperparts; black wings; buff throat. Female has buff upperparts; darker brown wings; white belly.  Nonbreeding male resembles female.
Image by:  1) Joseph Mochoge - Eburu Kenya  2) Frank Vassen - Belgium  3) Cristiano Crolle - near Novara, Italy  4)  Mark Medcalf - Scotland    5)  Philippe Kurlapski  6) Dick Daniels - Scotland  
1, 2) Female  3) Nonbreeding male  4, 5,, 6) Breeding male

Wheatear, Pied  Oenanthe pleschanka  Found: Europe, Asia, Africa
Image by: 1) Alastair Rae  2) Darren Bellerby - Lake Naivasha, Kenya  3) Joseph Mochoge - Gilgil, Kenya
1) Female  2, 3) Male

Wheatear, Variable  Oenanthe picata  Found: Asia
Image by: Tarique Sani

Wheatear, White-crowned  also  White-crowned Black Wheatear  Oenanthe leucopyga  Found: Africa
Image by:  1) Nir Ofir - Makhtesh Ramon, Israel  2) A C Easton

Genus Phoenicurus
Found in: Europe, Asia, Africa

Redstart, Black  Phoenicurus ochruros  Found: Europe, Asia, Africa
Image by:  1) Stefan-Xp   2) Michael Apel    3) Frank Vassen in Poland  4) JM Garg - India  5) Cristiano Crolle - Introd, Italy

Redstart, Blue-capped  Phoenicurus caeruleocephala  Found: Himalayas
Image by: 1) Ganesh_Jayaraman  Ron_Knight
1) Female 2) Male

Redstart, Blue-fronted Phoenicurus frontalis  Found: Asia
Image by: 1, 2) J M Garg - Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India  3) Aditi the Stargazer

Redstart, Common  Phoenicurus phoenicurus  Found: Europe, Asia, Africa
The breeding male Common Redstart has slate-gray upperparts, head; orange-chestnut rump, tail, flanks; white forehead; black throat, face. Female is brown with paler underparts.
Image by: 1) Ferran Pestaña - Spain  2) Cristiano Crolle - Arese, Italy  3) Thomas Kraft  - Germany
1) Female  2, 3) Male

Redstart, Duarian  Phoenicurus auroreus  Found: Asia
Image by: 1, 2, Ainus  3, 4) Darren Bellerby - Hong Kong Wetland Park, Hong Kong

Redstart, Hodgson's  Phoenicurus hodgsoni  Found: Asia
Image by: 1) Joseph_Wolf  2) Jayanth Sharma  Bulan_Chakraborty
1) Pair 2) Female 3) Male

Redstart, Moussier's  Phoenicurus moussieri  Found: Atlas mountains of northwest Africa
The male Moussier's Redstart has black upperparts with white wing patch; black head with white arc on side of head; orange-red underparts. Female has pale brown upperparts, head; paler underpart than male.
Image by: 1, 2) Biodiversity Heritage_Library  3) MPF  4) Gary_Clark - Morocco
1) Female 2, 3, 4) Male

Redstart, Przevalski's  also Ala Shan Redstart  Phoenicurus alaschanicus  Found: China
Image by: 1) 1) John and Jemi Holmes  2) Terry_Townshend 3) Tang_Jun - China
1) Female 2, 3) Male

Redstart, Rufous-backed  also  Eversmann's Redstart  Phoenicurus erythronotus  Found: mountains of central Asia
The breeding male Rufous-backed Redstart has rufous back; gray crown, nape; black mask; dark wings with white patches; mainly rufous underparts with white on belly. Nonbreeding males duller and browner.
Image by: 1) Bio_Div_Lib  2) Tim Worfolk  3) Francesco_Veronesi - Kazakistan 4) Aurelien Audevard
2) Female 3) Nonbreedinb male 4) Breeding male

Redstart, White-throated  Phoenicurus schisticeps  Found: Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal
Image by: 1, 3) Sheau_Lim 2) Prabhakarmanjunath
1) Female 2) Male

Redstart, White-winged  also Guldenstadt’s  Redstart  Phoenicurus erythrogastrus  Found: Asia
The male White-winged Redstart has mainly black upperparts; white wing patch; white crown; black throat, upper-breast; orange-red rest of underparts. Female has pale brown upperparts; orange-tinged buff underparts.
Image by: 1) Rajneesh Suvarna  2) Jik Jik

Genus Rhyacornis
Found in: Asia

Redstart, Luzon Water-  Rhyacornis bicolor  Found: Philippines
Image by: 1) Ely Teehankee  2) Francesco_Veronesi  2) Pete_Morris

Redstart, Plumbeous Water-  Rhyacornis fuliginosa  Found: Asia
The male Plumbeous Water Redstart has mainly slate-blue plumage; rusty-red tail. Female has gray plumage with a white rump.
Image by:  1) JJ Harrison Chiang Mai, Thailand  2) J. M. Garg - India  3) Dick - Nepal
1) Female  2, 3) Male

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