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ICTERIDAE

The Icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful birds, restricted to the New World. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. The majority of icterid species live in the tropics, although there are a number of temperate forms. They inhabit a range of habitats, including scrub, swamp, forest, and savannah. Temperate species are migratory. Icterids are variable in size, and often display considerable sexual dimorphism. Their size varies 15-52 cm. One unusual adaptation shared is they can open their bills strongly rather than passively, allowing them to force open gaps to obtain otherwise hidden food. Some use their gaping motion to open the skins of fruit to obtain the soft insides, and have long bills adapted to the process. Others such as cowbirds have shorter stubbier bills for crushing seeds. Orioles will drink nectar. The nesting habits of these birds are similarly variable. [abstracted from Wikipedia]



Orioles

Order Passeriformes    Family Icteridae

New World orioles of family Icteridae, genus Icterus are not related to Old World orioles of family Oriolidae, but are strikingly similar in size; diet; behaviour and their strongly contrasting plumage, a good example of convergent evolution. The males are typically black and yellow or orange, with white markings; the plumage of females and immature birds is duller. They are generally slender with long tails and a pointed bill. They mainly eat insects, often also nectar and fruit. The nest is a woven, elongated pouch. Species nesting in areas with cold winters are migratory.


Genus Icterus
The male orioles are typically black and yellow/orange with a little white. Females are duller.

Oriole, Altamira  Icterus gularis  Found: Texas to Central America
The Altamira Oriole has black back, wings, bib, lores, bill; orange head, nape, underparts; 1 white wingbar. Male and female are similar.
Similar to: Hooded Oriole. Male Hooded Oriole has more black on cheeks than Altamira Oriole.
Similar to: Spot-beasted Orioles are similer. Adult Spot-breasted Oriole has spots on breast; adult Altamira Oriole has no spots on breast. Juveniles are similar, with juvenile Spot-breasted Oriole having darker upper back.
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - Texas  2) Hollingsworth  of the US Fish and Wildlife Service  3)  Dominic Sherony  4) Alastair Rae


Oriole, Audubon's   Icterus graduacauda  Found: southeastern Texas, Mexican coast
Audibon's Oriole has a yellow back with greenish tinge; black hood, wings, tail; shiny black bill; yellow underparts. Female similar to make with slight more green on the back.
Similar to: Scott's Oriole. Male Scott's Oriole has a black back; Audubon's Oriole does not. Female Scott's Oriole does not have a black head; female Audubon's Oriole has a black head.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Mexico  2, 3) Bill Bouton - Texas  4) Jeff Whitlock - Texas  5) Amy McAndrews- Mexico



Oriole, Bahama  Icterus northropi  Found: Andros (island in Bahamas)
This is a critically endangered species.
Image by: 1) mxmerce


Oriole, Baltimore    Found: North America (not western USA)
The male Baltimore Oriole has a black hood, back, wings, upper tail; yellowish-orange to reddish-orange underparts; shoulders. Female has yellow-brown upperparts with darker wings; dull orange-yellow underparts.
Similar to: Black-backed Oriole. The male Black-backed has more black on the back than male Baltimore Oriole. Female has mre white wing-bars than female Baltimore Oriole.
Similar to: Bullock's Oriole. Male Bullock's Oriole has more white on wings than male Baltimore Oriole. Female Bullock's Oriole has line to the rear of its eyes; female Bullock's Oriole has neglible eye-line. Female Bullock's Oriole side of head is brighter than female Baltimore Oriole side of head.
Similar to: Orchard Oriole. Baltimore Oriole is orange or yellowish-orange; female and 1st year male Orchard Oriole are yellowish green; male Orchard Oriole is chesnut brown.
Similar to Scott's Oriole. Baltimore Oriole is orange-yellow; Scott's Oriole is yellow. Ranges do not overlap in USA.
Image by:  1) Henry McLin - Pennsylvania  2) Paula McVann - Missouri  3) Hjhipster  4) Dick Daniels - North Carolina    5) Marilylie Soveran   6) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  7) Terry Babji - New York  8) Dick - Pedasi, Panama
1) Juvenile  2, 3, 4) Female  5) Juvenile male  6, 7, 8) Male  


Oriole, Bar-winged  Icterus maculialatus  Found: Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
The Bar-winged Oriole has black upperparts, 1 white wing-bar; orange underparts.
Image by: 1) Amy McAndrews - Chiapas  2) Alex Navarro


Oriole, Black-backed  Icterus abeillei  Found: Mexico
The male Black-backed Oriole has a black hood, back, wings, upper tail; yellowish-orange underparts; . Female has yellow-brown upperparts; dull orange-yellow underparts.
Similar to: Baltimore Oriole. The male Black-backed has more black on the back than male Baltimore Oriole. Female has mre white wing-bars than female Baltimore Oriole.
Image by: 1) Pablo Leautaud  2) Joseph Smit 3) Pable Leautard - Mexico
1) Female 2, 3) Male


Oriole, Black-cowled  Icterus prosthemelas Found: Mexico, Central America
The male Black-cowled has mainly black upperparts, head, neck, upper-breast, tail; yellow lower-breast, belly, rump. Female black only on face, fore-neck; olive-green upperparts.
Image by: 1) Chris Jimenez  2) Hans Hillewaert - Costa Rica  3) Stan Lupo - Costa Rica  4) Francesco Veronesi
1) Female 2, 3, 4) Male


Oriole, Black-vented  Icterus wagleri  Found: Mexico, Central America
The Black-venter Oriole has mainly black upperparts, head, neck, tail; orange-yellow rest of underparts.
Image by: 1)  Len Blumin - Mexico  2) Ron Knight - Mexico


Oriole, Bullock's Icterus bullockii Found: western North America
The male Bullock's Oriole has a black crown, nape, back, throat, eye-line; white wing patch; the rest is orange. Female has olive crown; gray-brown upperparts; dull yellow breast; whitish belly.
Similar to: Baltimore Oriole. Male Bullock's Oriole has more white on wings than male Baltimore Oriole. Female Bullock's Oriole has line to the rear of its eyes; female Bullock's Oriole has neglible eye-line. Female Bullock's Oriole side of head is brighter than female Baltimore Oriole side of head.
Similar to: Black-headed Grosbeak. Male Black-headed Grosbeak has more black on head than male Bullock's Oriole. Male Bullock's Oriole has more white on wings.
Image by: 1) Alan Vernon - California  2) Eugene Beckes  3) Nigel - Vancouver, CA    4, 5) J N Stuart - New Mexico  6) Kevin Cole- Atascadero Lake  7) Charlie Westerinen - Tonopah, NV 
1, 2, 3) Female 4) Juvenile male 6, 7) Male



Oriole, Cuban  Icterus melanopsis  Found: Cuba
The Cuban Oriole has mainly black plumage with yellow shoulder, lower belly, rump, leg tufts.
Image by: 1) Ekaterina 2) Allan Hopkins
1) Juvenile


Oriole, Epaulet Icterus cayanensis  Found: southern South America
The Epaulet Oriole has all black plumage except for a yellow shoulder stripe (hence the name epaulet).
Similar to: Moriche Oriole. The Moriche Oriole has a yellow shoulder stripe and a yellow partial hood; Epaulet Oriole has a yellow shoulder sripe and all black head.
Similar to: Variable Oriole. Varilable Oriole used to be subspecies of Epaulet. Epaulet Oriole has yellow shoulders; Variable Oriole has chestnut shoulders.
Image by: 1) Baldwin


Oriole, Hispaniolna  Icterus dominicensis  Found: Hispaniola
The Hispaniolna Oriole has mainly black plumage; yellow shoulder patch, rump.
Image by: 1) Ron Knight


Oriole, Hooded  icterus cucullatus  Found: southwestern North America
The male Hooded Oriole has a black face, throat, back, wings, tail; orange hood, underparts; white wingbar. Female has olive-green  upperparts; yellowish underparts.
Similar to: Altamira Oriole. Male Hooded Oriole has more black on cheeks than Altamira Oriole.
Similar to: Orchard Oriole. Ranges only marginally overlap. Female Hooded Oriole and female Orchard Oriole are similar.
Similar to: Streak-backed Orioles.
Image by:  1, 2) Linda Tanner - Morro Bay, California  3) Dennis Jarvis - Mexico   4) Alan D. Wilson - Amado, Arizona   5) Carl_Berger  6)   Charlie Westerinen - the Sampley airport in Arizona  7) Dick Daniels - Tuscon, Arizona
1) Juvenile 2, 3) Female 4, 5, 6, 7) Male


Oriole, Jamaican  Icterus leucopteryx  Found: Jamaica
The Jamaican Oriole has mainly greenish-yellow pluamge; black wings with white patches; black bib.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Rockwell Feeding Station, Negril, Jamaica 


Oriole, Martinique  Icterus bonana  Found: Martinique - island in eastern Caribbean
The Martinique Oriole has black back, wings, tail; dark cinnamon head, neck; tawny shoulders, breast, belly.
Image by: 1) Sebastien Greaux


Oriole, Montserrat  Icterus oberi  Found: Montserrat in the Lesser Antilles
The male Montserrat Oriole has black upperparts, head, breast; tawny-orange lower-breast, bell, rump. Femae has dull greenish upperparts; yellowish-tawny underparts.
Image by: 1) Tavez Ayner  2) Neil Phillips  3) Drew Avery


Oriole, Moriche  Icterus chrysocephalus also Icterus cayanensis chrysocephalus Found: northern South America
The Moriche Oriole has mainy black plumage; yellow shoulder stripe, yellow partial hood. It is also considered a subspecies of the Epaulet Oriole.
Similar to: Epaulet Oriole. The Moriche Oriole has a yellow shoulder stripe and a yellow partial hood; Epaulet Oriole has a yellow shoulder sripe and all black head.
Image by: 1) Barloventomagico - Venezuela  2) Jerry Oldenettel - Venezuela


Oriole, Orchard Icterus spurius   Found: central and eastern North America
The male Oriole Orchard has a black head, neck, back, wings; chestnut underparts, rump. Female has olive-green upperparts; yellowish underparts.
Similar to: Baltimore Oriole. Baltimore Oriole is orange or yellowish-orange; female and 1st year male Orchard Oriole are yellowish green; male Orchard Oriole is chesnut brown.
Image by: 1) John Sutton  2, 6) Henry McLin - Pennsylvania   3, 4) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvanila  7, 8, 9) Dick Daniels - North Carolina   10) Dan Pancamo  11) MitchMcc
1, 2) Fledgling  3, 4) Female / immature male  5) Female  6, 7, 8) 1st year male  9,10, 11) Male


Oriole, Orange  Icterus auratus  Found: Belize, Mexico
The Orange Oriole has mainly orange plumage; black bib, wings, tail.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans   2) Amy McAndrews


Oriole, Orange-crowned  Icterus auricapillus  Found: Panama, Columbia, Venezuela
The Orange-crowned Oriole black upperparts, bib. tail; yellowish-orange crown, nape, underparts.
Image by: 1, 2) Barloventomagico
1) sub-adult


Oriole, Puerto Rican  Icterus portoricensis  Found: Puerto Rico
The Puerto Rican Oriole has mainly black plumage with yellow shoulder, lower belly, r ump, leg tufts.
Image by: 1) Jardin Boricua


Oriole, Saint Lucia  Icterus laudabilis  Found: Saint Lucia (an island country in the eastern Caribbean)
The Saint Lucia Oriole has black upperparts, head, breast; yellowish-orange lower-back, shoulder patch, belly.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit   2) Marcel Holyoak - St. Lucia


Oriole, Scott's   Icterus graduacauda  Found: southwestern United States to central Mexico
The male Scott's Oriole has a black back, head, breast; hellow underparts. Female has olive-green upperparts; lighter underparts.
Similar to: Audubon's Oriole. Male Scott's Oriole has a black back; Audubon's Oriole does not. Female Scott's Oriole does not have a black head; female Audubon's Oriole has a black head.
Similar to Baltimore Oriole. Baltimore Oriole is orange-yellow; Scott's Oriole is yellow. Ranges do not overlap in USA.
Image by: 1) Phillip Cowan - California   2, 3) J N Stuart - New Mexico
1) Female  2, 3) Male


Oriole, Spot-breasted  Icterus pectoralis  Found: North America (Florida) and Central America
Male and female Spot-breasted Orioles are similar in appearance.
Similar to: Altamira Oriole. Adult Spot-breasted Oriole has spots on breast; adult Altamira Oriole has no spots on breast. Juveniles are similar, with juvenile Spot-breasted Oriole having darker upper back.
Image by: 1, 3) Len Blumin - Costa Rica  2)  Dominic Sherony - Guatemala  4) Dan Irizarry - Florida


Oriole, Streak-backed  Icterus pustulatus  Found: Mexico and Central America
The Streak-backed Oriole has an orange head, underparts; orange back with black streaks; black tail, face, throat, lores. The streaked back is a distinguishing feature.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2,  3) Dominic Sherony  4) Marcel Holyoak - San Bernardino County, California  5) Charlie Westerinen - western Costa Rica


Oriole, Variable  Icterus pyrrhopterus  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
The Variable Oriole has mainly black plumage; chestnut shoulders.
Similar to: Epaulet Oriole. Varilable Oriole used to be subspecies of Epaulet. Epaulet Oriole has yellow shoulders; Variable Oriole has chestnut shoulders.
Image by: 1) Manequinho Correia


Oriole, White-edged  Icterus graceannae  Found: Ecuador and Peru
The White-edged Oriole can be identified by the white edge on its wings - see photo 2 below.
Image by: 1, 2) Dick Daniels- Birds of Eden. Identified by Charlie Westerinen  3) Francesco Veronesi - Ecuador


Oriole, Yellow  Icterus nigrogularis  Found: northern South America
The Yellow Oriole has mainly yellow plumage; black lores, throat, bib, wings, tail.
Image by: 1) Stanley Tempro  2) Barloventomagico


Oriole, Yellow-backed  Icterus chrysater  Found: Central American, northern South America
The Yellow-backed Oriole has black wings, face, throat; bright yellow back, underparts. Female very similar to male but may be greenish-yellow.
Image by: 1, 2) Jerry Oldenettel - Belize  3) Patty McGann  4) Dominic Sherony - Panama


Troupial, Campo  Icterus jamacaii  Found: South America
The Campo Troupial has a black heaq, nape, back, wings, tail; orange crown, hood, underparts; white streak the length of the wing when closed; some blue around each eye.
Similar to: Orange-backed Troupial. Campo Troupial has black head, nape; Orange-backed Troupial has mostly orange head, just a black forehead.
Image by: 1) Dilson Santos   2) Livia Mendonca


Troupial, Orange-backed  Icterus croconotus  Found: Guyana, Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru
The Orange-backed Troupial has a black face, throat, back, wings, tail; orange crown, hood, underparts; white streak the length of the wing when closed; some blue around each eye.
Similar to: Campo Troupial. Campo Troupial has black head, nape; Orange-backed Troupial has mostly orange head, just a black forehead.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Andreas Trepte  3) Charles Sharp - Brazil  4) Dick Daniels - Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle


Troupial, Venezuelan   also Turpial  Icterus icterus   Found: South America
The Venezuelan Troupial has a black head, throat, back, wings, tail; orange shoulders, underparts; white streak the length of the wing when closed; blue bare patch around each eye. This Troupial has the most white on its wings.
Image by: 1) Paul Asmine and Jill Lenoble - Venezuela  2, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - Venezuela  4, 5) Dick Daniels - Puerto Rico




Genus Amblycercus - 1 Species
Caciques are slim birds with predominantly black plumage and long tails; large pointed pale bills. Their diet consists of insects and fruit. They are colonial breederss creating long pendulous nests which hang from tree branches. They occur in South America north to Mexico.

Cacique, Yellow-billed  Amblycercus holosericeus  Found: Mexico, Central America, northern South America
The Yellow-billed Cacique has black plumage; pale yellow bill, eyes.
Similar to: Red-rumped Cacique. Red-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Yellow-billed Cacique has pale yellow eyes.
Similar to: Scarlet-rumped Cacique. Scarlet-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Yellow-billed Cacique has pale yellow eyes.
Image by: 1) Jorge Montejo - Mexico



Genus Cacicus
Caciques are slim birds with predominantly black plumage and long tails; large pointed pale bills. Their diet consists of insects and fruit. They are colonial breederss creating long pendulous nests which hang from tree branches. They occur in South America north to Mexico.

Cacique, Ecuadorian   Cacicus xx  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Ecuadorian Cacique has black plumage; blue eyes.
Image by: 1) Alphonse Dubois


Cacique, Golden-winged  Cacicus chrysopterus  Found: South America
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Cacique. Golden-winged Cacique has black tail; Yellow-rumped Cacique has yellow on upper part of tail.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Reserva Guainumbi, São Luíz do


Cacique, Mountain   Cacicus chrysonotus  Found: northern South America
The Mountain Cacique yellow rump, median back stripe. Northern poplulations have blue eyes and southern have yellow eyes. May be separated into 2 species.
Image by: 1) Orbigny


Cacique, Red-rumped  Cacicus haemorrhous  Found: South America
The Red-rumped Cacique has mainly glossy black plumage; red rump; blue eyes; ivory bill.
Similar to: Scarlet-rumped Cacique. Red-rumped has red in the center of its back; Scarlet-rumped Cacique has red only on its rump.
Similar to: Yellow-billed Cacique. Red-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Yellow-billed Cacique has pale yellow eyes.
Image by: 1) Benito Serafini  2) Greg Hume - Cincinnati  3) Barloventomagico  4) Claudio Timm


Cacique, Scarlet-rumped  Cacicus uropygialis  Found: Central America and South America
The Scarlet-rumped Cacique has mainly glossy black plumage; scarlet rump; blue eyes; pale yellow bill.
Similar to: Red-rumped Cacique. Red-rumped has red in the center of its back; Scarlet-rumped Cacique has red only on its rump.
Similar to: Solitary Black Cacique. Scarlet-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Solitary Black Cacique has dark eyes.
Similar to: Yellow-billed Cacique. Scarlet-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Yellow-billed Cacique has pale yellow eyes.
Image by: 1) RocketJohn - Panama  2, 3) HarmonyOnPlanetEarth - Panama


Cacique, Selva  Cacicus koepckeae  Found: Peru
The Selva Cacique has mainly black plumage; yellow rump.
Image by: 1) Daniel Lane


Cacique, Solitary Black  Cacicus solitarius  Found: South America
Similar to: Scarlet-rumped Cacique. Scarlet-rumped Cacique has blue eyes; Solitary Black Cacique has dark eyes.
Image by:   1, 2, 3) Victoria DA  4) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina


Cacique, Yellow-rumped  Cacicus cela  Found: Panama south to Bolivia, Peru, central Brazil.
The Yellow-rumped Cacique has mainly black plumage; yellow rump, wing coverts.
Similar to: Golden-winged Cacique. Golden-winged Cacique has black tail; Yellow-rumped Cacique has yellow on upper part of tail.
Similar to: Yellow-winged Cacique. Range of Yellow-rumped Cacique and Yellow-winged Cacique do not overlap.
Image by: 1, 2) Dick Daniels - the North Carolina Zoo   3) Sandy Cole - the North Carolina Zoo


Oropendola, Band-tailed  Cacicus latirostris  Found: western Amazon in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Band-tailed Oropendola has dark chestnut nape; blue eyes; mainly yellow tail with black tip.
Image by: 1) KM


Oropendola, Casqued  Cacicus oseryi  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
The Casqued Oropendola has chestnut upperparts; olive-yellow breast, neck sides; grayish throat; white eyes.
Image by: 1) Casteinau  2) Kent Nickell - Ecuador


Genus Cassiculus - 1 species
This is the northmost cacique
Cacique, Yellow-winged  Cassiculus melanicterus  Found: northern Guatemala, west coast Mexico
The Yellow-winged Cacique has mainly black plumage; yellow wings, rump, tail.
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Cacique. Range of Yellow-rumped Cacique and Yellow-winged Cacique do not overlap.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Mexico  2) Don Loarie   3) Ron Knight



Genus Dolichonyx - 1 species
Unlike the orioles and caciques, bobolinks have their nest on the ground, usually in dense vegetation.

Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus   Found: Grassland - The Americas
The male Boboling has mainly black plumage; creamy nape; white center of back and shoulders. Female has light brown plumage  with some black on back and flanks.
Image by:   1) Seabamirum - New York  2) New Jersy Birds    3) Alan D. Wilson near Diamond, Oregon  4) Andrea Westmoreland
1) nonbreeding adult 2) Female 3, 4) Male



Genus Gymnomystax - 1 species

Blackbird, Oriole  Gymnomystax mexicanus  Found: northern South America
The Oriole Blackbird has mainly black upperparts; black eye-patch; bright yellow head, nape, underparts.
Image by: 1, 2) Barloventomagico - Venezuela



Genus Psarocolius
The Oropendolas have long pointed bills; long tails with at least some bright yellow. Like the orioles they are colonial breeders and have long basket-like nests. They eat insects and fruit.

Oropendola, Baudo  Psarocolius cassini  Found: Columbia
The Baudo Oropendola has chestnut upperparts; black head, neck, underparts; golden tail with black center; heavy triangular bill with yellow tip.
Image by: 1) Edwar Guarin


Oropendola, Black  Psarocolius guatimozinus  Found: Columbia, Panama
The Black Oropendola has black upper back; dark chestnut lower back; black underparts; bare blue and pink facial patches; dark bill with orange tip.
Similar to: Montezuma Oropendola. Black Oropendola has black upper back; Montezuma Oropendola has Chestnut upperparts.
Image by: John Gerrard Keulemanns


Oropendola, Chestnut-headed  Psarocolius wagleri  Found: Mexico to northwest South America
The Chestnut-headed Oropendola black upperparts and lowerparts with chestnut head, rump; blue eyes; whitish bill with bulbous area at base of upper mandible; yellow tail with black central feathers.
Similar to: Crested Oropendola. Chestnut-headed Oropendola has bulbous area at base of upper mandible; Crested Oropendola does not.
Image by: 1) Kate and Sam - Costa Rica  2) Gaby Schulemann-Maier - Costa Rica  3) Joule E


Oropendola, Crested  Psarocolius decumanus  Found: South America
The Crested Oropendola has mainly black plumage; chestnut rump; blue eyes; whitish bill; yellow tail with black central feathers.
Similar to: Chestnut-heaqded Oropendola. Chestnut-headed Oropendola has bulbous area at base of upper mandible; Crested Oropendola does not.
Image by: 1, 4) Dick Daniels - National Aviary  2) Alastair Rae   3)  Dominic Sherony   5) Sandy Cole - San Diego Zoo  6) Dick - Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo 
1) Juvenile?



Oropendola, Dusky-green  Psarocolius atrovirens  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Dusky-green Oropendola has mainly green plumage; yellow tail with green central feathers.
Image by: 1) Paul Seligman


Oropendola, Green  Psarocolius viridis  Found: South America
The Green Oropendola varies has an olive head, breast; blue eyes; pale bill with orange tip.
Similar to: Olive Oropendola. Green Oropendola has pale bill with orange tip; blue eyes. Olive Propendola has black bill with orange tip; brown eyes.
Image by: 1) Arjan Haverkamp  2) The Brit 2  3) Dick Daniels - National Aviary


Oropendola, Montezuma Psarocolius montezuma Found: Central America
The Monezuma Oropendola has chestnut upperparts; black underparts; bare blue and light pink facial patches; black bill with orange tip; yellow tail with dark central feathers.
Similar to: Black Oropendola. Black Oropendola has black upper back; Montezuma Oropendola has Chestnut upperparts.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel in Costa Rica  2)  Dominic Sherony    3) Roland van Stokkom - La Fortuna, San Carlos in Costa Rica  4) Paulo Philippidis - Arenal, Guanacaste, Costa Rica


Oropendola, Olive   Psarocolius bifasciatus  Found: South America
The Olive Oropendola varies has an olive head, breast or a black head, breast depending on the subspecies. It has brown back, wings, belly, eyes; pink bare facial skin; black bill with orange tip.
Similar to: Green Oropendola. Green Oropendola has pale bill with orange tip; blue eyes. Olive Propendola has black bill with orange tip; brown eyes.
Image by: 1, 2) Ross Tsai


Oropendola, Russet-backed  Psarocolius angustifrons  Found: South America
The Russet-backed Oropendola has olive-brown head, neck back; yellow outer tail feathers. The rest of the plumage is olive-brown in some subspecies, dark brown in others. Lowland birds have pale bills; highland birds have black bills.
Image by: 1, 2) Barloventomagico - Venezuela 
    3) Cristóbal Alvarado Minic - Venezuela  4) Carol Foil - Peru  5) Vince Smith - Ecuador




Genus Pseudoleistes
Marshbirds prefer marshland or grasslands habitats, similar to the Red-winged Blackbirds of North America.

Marshbird, Brown-and-yellow  Pseudoleistes virescens   Found: South America
The Brown-and-yellow Marshbird has brown upperparts, throat,  upper breast, tail; yellow remainder.
It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Marshbird. Yellow-rumped Marshbird has yellow rump; Brown-and-yellow Marshbird does not.
Image by: 1) Dario Niz - Uruguay  2) dFaulder - the Ceibas area, Entre Rios, Argentina  3) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina


Marshbird, Yellow-rumped  Pseudoleistes guirahuro  Found: South America
The Yellow-rumped Marshbird has blackish-brown upperparts, throat,  upper breast, tail; yellow underparts, rump.
It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Similar to: Brown-and-yellow Marshbird. Yellow-rumped Marshbird has yellow rump; Brown-and-yellow Marshbird does not.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3, 4) Dario Sanches in Brazil 





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