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HUMMINGBIRDs

Order Apodiformes    Family Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are restricted to the Americas from southern Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, including the Caribbean. The majority of species occur in tropical and subtropical Central and South America. Hummingbirds are are among the smallest of birds. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so. They can fly at speeds exceeding 50 km/h (30 mi/h).

Hummingbirds drink nectar, a sweet liquid inside flowers. Nectar is a poor source of nutrients, so they also prey on insects and spiders, especially when feeding young. When hummingbirds feed on nectar, the bill is usually only opened slightly, allowing the tongue to dart out and into the interior of flowers. Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Hummingbirds do not spend all day flying, as the energy cost would be prohibitive; the majority of their activity consists simply of sitting or perching. With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach over 1000 beats per minute.

The hummingbirds are presented in 7 web pages:                 1) Barbthroat, Hermit, Jacobian, Sicklebill, Topaz
2) Carib, Fairy, Goldenthroat, Mango, Violetear, Visorbearer    3) Comet, Coquette, Firecrown, Sunangel, Sylph, Thorntail
4) Helmetcrest, Hillstar, Metaltail, Puffleg, Thornbill                5) Brilliant, Coronet, Inca, Starfrontlet, Sunbeam
6) Mountain-gem, Starthroat, Sheartail, Woodstar                  7) Emerald, Plumeleteer, Sabrewing, Woodnymph

Brilliant, Coronet, Inca, Starfrontlet, Sunbeam



Genus Aglaeactis
Sunbeams (Aglaeactis) are large hummingbirds with a straight bill of medium length (for a hummmingbird), and which occupy high elevation humid forest edge in the Andes. In sunbeams the throat is dull, with no glittering gorget, but all species of sunbeam have a tuft of white or rufous feathers on the breast, and the rump usually is some shade of iridescent purple.

Sunbeam,_Black-hooded  Aglaeactis pamela  Found: Bolivia
The Black-hooded Sunbeam has black hood; blue wings.
Image by: 1) Cephas 2) Orbigny  3) Glenn_Bartley


Sunbeam,_Purple-backed  Aglaeactis aliciae  Found: Peru
The Purple-backed Sunbeam has mainly dark brown plumage; purple back (in good lighting); white around eyes, lower throat, upper-breast.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) John Gerrard Keulemans  3) Troy Ecol


Sunbeam,_Shining  Aglaeactis cupripennis  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The male Shining Sunbeam  has dusky brown upperparts; dark crown, ear coverts; glittering purple on lower back (hence shining); cinnamon-rufous face, underparts. Female similar to male but not "shining" on back.
Image by:  1) Chephas  2) Nick Athanas - Peru  3) Michael Woodruff - Ecuador  4) Bill Bouton - Peru  5) Alejandro_Tamayo


Sunbeam,_White-tufted  Aglaeactis castelnaudii  Found: Peru
The White-tufted Sunbeam has white tuft on breast; magenta colored lower back; copper tail.
Image by: 1) Chephas  2) John_Gould  3) Simon_Valdez  4) Ken_Simonite



Genus Boissonneaua
Found: Andes of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Coronets are stout, heavy-bodied hummingbirds with a relatively short heavy bill.

Coronet,_Buff-tailed  Boissonneaua flavescens  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela
The Buff-tailed Coronet has mainly green plumage; darker wings.
Image by: 1) Mmcnally  2, 3) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador  4) Nick Athanas - Columbia


Coronet,_Chestnut-breasted  Boissonneaua matthewsii  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Chestnut-breasted Coronet has green upperparts; glittering green throat; rufous-chestnut lower-breast, belly, tail. 
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4)  Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador   5, 8) Dominic Sherony  6) Jae - Sanctuary Lodge Hotel, Machu Picchu, Peru  7) Philipp Weigell  9) Nick Athanas - Peru


Coronet,_Velvet_Purple
Boissonneaua jardini  ]Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The Velvet Purple Coronet has greenish-blue upperparts; mainly bluish-purple underparts; green upper-wing coverts; white undertail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Vince Smith - Ecuador  3) Alejandro_Tamayo  4) Nick Athanas - Ecuador



Genus Coeligena
The incas and starfrontlets have long thin straight bills.

Inca,_Black  Coeligena prunellei  Found: Columbia
The Black Inca has mainly black plumage; white patch on each side of breast. Male has some blue on shoulder; female has less.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Columbia  3) Dave_Curtis   4) Ron_Knight


Inca,_Bronzy  Coeligena coeligena  Found: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The six subspecies of the Bronzy Inca are generally brownish and dull green; bronzy on shoulders
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Columbia  3) Joseph_Boone - Ecuador  4) Francisco_Enríquez - Ecuador


Inca,_Brown   Coeligena wilsoni  Found: Columbia and Ecuador
The Brown Inca has mainly brown plumage; purplish throat; white shoulder patch.
Image by: 1) Cephas 2) Michael Woodruff - Ecuador  3) Joseph Boone - Ecuador  4, 5) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Inca,_Collared  Coeligena torquata  Found: Venezuela through Bolivia
The Collared Inca has a white (or rufous) fore-collar; white rump usually hidden..
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 5, 6) Nick Athanas - Columbia, Ecuador, Peru  3) Francisco_Enriquez - Ecuador
2, 3) Female   4, 5) Male
5) C. t. omissa. Sometimes considered separate species. Has rufous rather than white collar.


Starfrontlet,_Blue-throated  Coeligena helianthea  Found: mainly Columbia; also Venezuela
The male Blue-throated Starfrontlet may appear mostly black unless in good light; violet-blue throat patch; blue-pink belly. Female mostly greenish-black; blue upper-tail; cinnamon underparts; pink spotting on belly.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3, 4) Nick Athanas - Columbia
2) Female 3, 4) Male


Starfrontlet,_Buff-winged  Coeligena lutetiae  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Buff-winged Starfrontlet has buff colored patch on wings.
Image by:  1) Cephas 2, 4) Michael Woodruff - Yanacocha, Ecuador  3, 5) Nick Athanas - Ecuador   6, 7) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador
1, 2, 3) Female    4, 5, 6) Male


Starfrontlet,_Dusky  Coeligena orina  Found: northwest Columbia
The Dusky Starfrontlet has dark green upperparts, tail; pale green rump. Male has blue forehead patch, throat patch.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Columbia
2) Two males


Starfrontlet,_Golden-bellied  Coeligena bonapartei  Found: mainly Columbia; also Venezuela
The male Golden-bellied Starfrontlet has green frontlet; blue throat patch; mostly golden underparts. Female has shiny green upperparts; no obvious frontlet.
Image by: 1) Cephas   2, 4) Nick Athanas - Columbia  3) Andres_Cuervo
2) Female 3, 4) Male


Starfrontlet,_Rainbow  Coeligena iris  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The male Rainbow Starfrontlet has a glittering rainbow-like forehead varies considerably among subspecies. Both species have extensive amount of chestnut color.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador
2) Male


Starfrontlet,_Violet-throated  Coeligena violifer  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The male Violet-throated Starfrontlet has violet throat. Both have buffy bellies.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Nick Athanas - Peru  3) Rafael_De_La_Colina
2) Female  3) Male


Starfrontlet,_White-tailed  Coeligena phalerata  Found: northeast Columbia
The male White-tailed Starfrontlet has green upperparts; white tail;  blue forehead, throat patch. Female ahs green upperparts; bronzy tail; rufous underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Diego Calderon 3) Dick_Culbert  4) Nick Athanas - Columbia
2) Female 3, 4) Male



Genus Ensifera - 1 species

Hummingbird, Sword-billed  Ensifera ensifera  Found: South America
The Sword-billed Hummingbird has the longest bill of all the hummingbirds.
Image by: 1, 2) Nick Athanas - Columbia, Ecuador  3, 4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Eduador
 1) Female  2) Perhaps juvenile male  3 - 6_) Male



Genus Heliodoxa
Most species of brilliants has some glittering green plumage.

Brilliant,_Black-throated  Heliodoxa schreibersii  Found:Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Black-throated Brilliant has a black throat. Male has black underparts. Female has gray underparts; white malar .stripe.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Nick Athanas - Equador


Brilliant,_Empress  Heliodoxa imperatrix  Found: mainly Columbia; also Ecuador
The Empress Brilliant has green upperparts; dark green wings. Male has small violet throat patch. Female has pale throat, upper-breast with green spots.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2 - 5) Nick Athanas


Brilliant,_Fawn-breasted  Heliodoxa rubinoides  Found: South America
The Fawn-breasted Brilliant has green upperparts; cinnamon-fawn underparts; slightly down-curved bill.
Image by: 1, 5 ,6) Nick Athanas - Ecuador   2) Eric Haley  3) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador  4) David Cook - Owlet Lodge, Peru
1, 2) Female  5, 6) Male


Brilliant,_Green-crowned  Heliodoxa jacula  Found: Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador
The male Green-crowned Brilliant has bronze-green upperparts; green crown, throat, breast; small violet throat patch. white thighs; blue-black tail. Female has green upperparts; green spotted white underparts; white malar stripe; white tips on corners of tail.
Image by: 1, 7) Nick Athanas   2) Hans Hillewaert - Costa Rica   3, 4, 6)  Brian Ralphs - Tilarán, Guanacaste, Costa Rica  5) Linda De Volder - Costa Rica
1 - 4) Female 5, 6, 7) Male


Brilliant,_Pink-throated  Heliodoxa gularis  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Pink-throated Brilliant has bronzy green tail; white under-tail coverts; pinkish throat patch (larger on male).
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Bigal River Conservation Project - Ecuador


Brilliant,_Rufous-webbed  Heliodoxa branickii  Found: Peru
The Rufous-webbed Brilliant has mainly green plumage; blue upper-tail; white under-tail. Also rufous on tail, visible while in flight. Female has white speckled underparts. Male has pink gorget.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2)Joseph_Smit  3) Virgilio Yábar-Calderón


Brilliant,_Violet-browed  Heliodoxa xanthogonys  Found: Guyana, Venezuela
The Violet-browed Brilliant has mainly green plumage; straight bill. Male has sparkling green throat, breast; Female has white underparts with green dots.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) John_Gould   3) Nick Athanas - Venezuela  4) Brendan_Ryan - Venezuela


Brilliant,_Violet-fronted  Heliodoxa leadbeateri  Found: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Violet-fronted Brilliant has mainly green plumage. Male has violet forehead. Female has whitish underparts heavily spotted wit green; white malar stripe.
Similar to: Many-spotted Hummingbird.   Violet-fronted Brilliant has small white patch below eye; Many-spotted Hummingbird does not.
Image by: 1, 2) Nick Athanas - Peru  3) Adrián Afonso - Venezuela
1) Female 2, 3) Male


Jewelfront,_Gould's  Heliodoxa aurescens  Found: northeast South America
The Gould's Jewelfront hasmainly green plumage; rufous breast patch. Male has purplish-blue forecrown; black lores, chin.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Charles_Sharp - Peru   3) Joao_Quental - Peru  4) Nick Athanas - Ecuador



Genus Lafresnaya - 1 species

Velvetbreast,_Mountain  Lafresnaya lafresnayi  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Mountain Velvetbreast has thin down-curved bill; white tail patch. Male has black velvety lower-breast, belly.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador, Columbia  4) Francesco_Veronesi - Columbia



Genus Loddigesia - 1 species

Spatuletail,_Marvelous  Loddigesia mirabilis  Found: Peru
The Marvelous Spatuletail has an extremely long tail. Male has "racket" on either side of tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) David_Cook  3) Nick Athanas



Genus Ocreatus - 1 species

Racket-tail,_Booted  Ocreatus underwoodii  Found: Venezuela to Bolivia
The mail Booted Racket-tail has metallic green upperparts; black wings; black rackets on tail. Female has green upperparts; white underparts with green speckles.
Image by: 1) Chephas 2, 3, 4) Nick Athanas - Peru, Ecuador, Ecuador  Tad Bonieck - Ecuador
2, 3) Female 4, 5) Male
2) O. u. peruanus 3) O. u. melanantherus




Genus Pterophanes - 1 species

Sapphirewing,_Great  Pterophanes cyanopterus   Found: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The male Great Sapphirewing has blue-green upperparts; blue wings. Female have green upperparts; blue upper-wing; cinnamon underparts.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Vince Smith - Ecuador  3) Nick Athanas - Equador  4, 5) Jerry Oldenettel - Ecuador
2) Female  2, 4) Male



Genus Urochroa - 1 species

Hillstar,_White-tailed  Urochroa bougueri  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The White-tailed Hillstar has mainly green plumage; blue throat, breast; white under-tail.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Sergey_Pisarevskiy - Columbia  3) Alejandro_Tamayo  4, 5) Nick Athanas - Columbia, Ecuador
4) U. b. bougueri 5) U. b. leucura



Genus Urosticte
Whitetips, refers to the conspicuous white tips on the central tail feathers of the males.

Whitetip,_Purple-bibbed  Urosticte benjamini  Found: mainly Columbia; also Ecuador
The male Purple-bibbed Whitetip has purple bib; large white tail spot. Female has green upperparts; white underparts with extensive green spotting. Both sexes have large white spot behind eye,
Image by: 1) Cephas  2, 3, 4) Nick Athanas - Columbia, Ecuador, Ecuador
1) Female 2, 3) Male


Whitetip,_Rufous-vented_  Urosticte ruficrissa  Found: mainly Ecuador; also Columbia, Peru
The Rufous-vented Whitetip has green upperparts; white spot behind eye. Male has large white spot on tail. Female has bronzy tail with white tip.
Image by: 1) Cephas  2) Francisco_Enríquez - Ecuador   3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador






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