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PROCELLARIIFORMES

Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises albatrosses, shearwaters, and various type of petrels. Wings are long and narrow; feet are webbed, and the hind toe is undeveloped or non-existent. Plumage is predominantly black, white and gray. They are almost exclusively pelagic (feeding in the open ocean). They distributed across the world's oceans, with the highest diversity being around New Zealand. Procellariiformes mostly nesting on remote predator-free islands. Only a single egg is laid per nesting attempt. The various species within the order have a variety of migration strategies. Many species undertake regular trans-equatorial migrations. However, no albatrosses cross the migrate across the equator because they rely on wind assisted flight.

The order has a few unifying characteristics, starting with their tubular nasal passages enclosed in one or two tubes on their straight, deeply grooved bills with hooked tips. These passages are used for smelling which helps to locate patchily distributed prey at sea and may also help locate their nests within nesting colonies. Also, they have a stomach oil stored that can be used as a food source during their long flights and also as a defense mechanism. All birds have an enlarged nasal gland at the base of the bill, above their eyes. This gland is inactive in species that don't require it; however the Procellariiformes do require its use due to their drinking of ocean water. It removes salt that forms a 5% saline solution that drips out of their nose or is forcibly ejected in some petrels.



Storm-Petrels

Order Procellariiformes    Family Hydrobatidae

Storm-petrels are seabirds in the family Hydrobatidae, part of the order Procellariiformes. They are almost exclusively pelagic (feeding in the open ocean). As a result, their legs are not well designed for walking and they move poorly around their nests. Most have dark brown or black upperparts and a white rump. These smallest of seabirds feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. They often follow ships to feed on propeller debris. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. Most species nest in crevices or burrows and all but one species attends the breeding colonies nocturnally. They lay 1 white egg.

Genus Fregetta

Petrel, Black-bellied Storm-  Fregetta tropica  Found: Madagascar, Australasia
Image by: 1) John Gould  2) Tim Lenz  3) Edward Rooks


Petrel, White-bellied  Storm-  Fregetta grallaria  Found: Asia, Australasia, Africa, South America
Image by: 1) Danmantle


Petrel, New Zealand  Storm-  Fregetta maoriana  Found: New Zealand
The New Zealand Storm-Pretel blackish upperparts; white rump; mostly black underparts with white belly.
Image by: 1, 2) Tom Tarrant



Genus Garrodia - 1 species

Petrel, Gray-backed  Storm-  Garrodia nereis  Found: Australasia, Africa, South America
Image by: 1, 2) David Cook - Australia



Genus Hydrobates - 1 species

Petrel, European  Storm-  Hydrobates pelagicus  Found: .North America, Europe, Asia, Africa
The European Storm-Pretel has mainly black plumage; white rump; white band on underwings.
Image by: 1) Fabian Montojo  2) Muchaxo



Genus Nesofregetta - 1 species

Petrel, Polynesian  Storm- Nesofregetta fuliginosa  Found: Chile, Fiji and other Polynesian Islands
Image by: 1, 2) Brad Schram



Genus Oceanites

Petrel, Pincoya  Storm-  Oceanites pincoyae  Found: South America
The Pincoya Storm-Petrel has blackish-brown upperparts; washed silver-gray mantle, nape,
Image by: 1) Claudio Vidal


Petrel, White-vented Storm- also Elliot's Storm-petrel  Oceanites gracilis   Found: off the Pacific Coast of South America
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Galapagos Islands   4) David Cook - Galapagos Islands, Ecuador


Petrel, Wilson's Storm-  Oceanites oceanicus Found: The Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia
The Wilson's Storm-Petrel has a white rump; some white on wings; legs extend beyon the tail.
SImilar to: Band-rumped Storm-Petrel. Wilson's Storm-Petrel's legs extend beyon the tail; Band-rumped Storm-Petrel's legs do not extend beyond tail.
Image by: 1) Patrick Coin  2) Putneymark - Antarctica  3) Dominique_Filippi     4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina at the Gulf Stream.




Genus Oceanodroma
They have square tail, short legs, short wings.

Petrel, Ashy Storm-   Oceanodroma homochroa  Found: Pacific coast of North America
Similar to: Black Storm Petrel. Ashy-Storm Petrel is sooty brown; Black Storm-Petrel is black. Ashy Storm-Petrel is smaller and has a more fluttering style of flight than Black Storm Petrel, Ashy Storm-Petrel's upstroke only becoming horizontal to the body before beginning the downstroke; Black Storm-Petrel has a higher upstroke.
Image by: 1) Duncan Wright  2) Don Loarie


Petrel, Band-rumped Storm-   Oceanodroma castro  Found: The Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa
The Band-rumped Storm-Petrel has a white rump; legs do not extend beyon the tail.
Similar to: Leach's Storm-Petrel. Leach's Storm-Petrel has a deeper tail notch than the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel.
SImilar to: Wilson's Storm-Petrel. Wilson's Storm-Petrel's legs extend beyon the tail; Band-rumped Storm-Petrel's legs do not extend beyond tail.
Image by: 1, 2) Dan Irizarry - North Carolina, Florida coast  3) Julio Mulero - North Carolina


Petrel, Black Storm-   Oceanodroma melania  Found: western North and South America
The Black Storm-Petrel is black except for some pale on bill.
Similar to
: Ashy Storm Petrel. Ashy-Storm Petrel is sooty brown; Black Storm-Petrel is black. Ashy Storm-Petrel is smaller and has a more fluttering style of flight than Black Storm Petrel, Ashy Storm-Petrel's upstroke only becoming horizontal to the body before beginning the downstroke; Black Storm-Petrel has a higher upstroke.
Image by: 1) Ricardo Valenzuela 2) Marcel Holyoak - California


Petrel, Cape Verde Storm-  Oceanodroma jabejabe  Found: Cape Verde (islands off west coast of Africa)
The Cape Verde Storm-Petrel was formerly considered subspecies of Band-rumped Storm-Petrel.
Image by: 1) Serg iViudas


Petrel, Fork-tailed Storm-   Oceanodroma furcata  Found: North America, Asia
Similar to: White-faced Storm-Petrel. White-faced Storm-Petrel has white on its face; Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel does not.
Image by: 1) C. Schlawe, USFWS  2) USFWS - Alaska  3) Marcel Holyoak - California


Petrel, Leach's Storm-   Oceanodroma leucorhoa   Found: The Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia
There are two forms - white-rumped, dark-rumped. Mainly has dark-brown plumage.
Similar to: Band-rumped Storm Petrel. Leach's Storm-Petrel has a deeper tail notch than the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel.
Image by: 1) Naumann   2) Schlawe, USFWS  3) Marvel Holyoak - California    4) Champagne for monkeys - Nova Scotia 
1, 2, 3) White rump form


Petrel, Least  Storm-  Oceanodroma microsoma  Found: west coast North America, Mexico, northern South America
Image by: 1) Audubon


Petrel, Markham's  Storm-  Oceanodroma markhami  Found: off west coast of Central and South America
Image by: 1) Jaime Jahncke


Petrel, Matsudaira's  Storm-  Oceanodroma matsudairae  Found: Australasia, Indonesia, Japan
Image by: 1, 2) Tony Morris


Petrel, Monteiro's Storm-  Oceanodroma monteiroi  Found: Azores of Portugal
Image by: 1) kmmsp


Petrel, Ringed  Storm-  Oceanodroma hornbyi  Found: off west coast of North and South America
The Ringed Storm-Pretrel has dark cap, nape; white face, underparts; black breast band; forked tail.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Cornelia Oedekoven


Petrel, Swinhoe's  Storm-  Oceanodroma monorhis  Found: Asia, Indonesia
The Swinhoe's Storm=Petrel has mainly dark brown plumage.
Image by: 1) Rafael Matias


Petrel, Tristram's Storm-  Oceanodroma tristrami  Found: Japan, Hawaiian Islands
Image by: 1, 2) Duncan Wright  3) Tony Morris
1) Chick


Petrel, Wedge-rumped  Storm-  Oceanodroma tethys  Found: Off west coast Americas (Breeds Galapagos; off Peru)
The Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel has large white wedge on upper-tail.
Image by: 1) Brian Gratwicke



Genus Pelagodroma - 1 species

Petrel, White-faced Storm-   Pelagodroma marina   Found: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia
Similar to: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel. White-faced Storm-Petrel has white on its face; Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel does not.
Image by: 1) JJ Harrison  2, 3) AngrySunbird  4) Australia  Aviceda





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