PROCELLARIIFORMES

Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises albatrosses, shearwaters, and various type of petrels. Wings are long and narrow; feet are webbed, and the hind toe is undeveloped or non-existent. Plumage is predominantly black, white and gray. They are almost exclusively pelagic (feeding in the open ocean). They distributed across the world's oceans, with the highest diversity being around New Zealand. Procellariiformes mostly nesting on remote predator-free islands. Only a single egg is laid per nesting attempt. The various species within the order have a variety of migration strategies. Many species undertake regular trans-equatorial migrations. However, no albatrosses cross the migrate across the equator because they rely on wind assisted flight.

The order has a few unifying characteristics, starting with their tubular nasal passages enclosed in one or two tubes on their straight, deeply grooved bills with hooked tips. These passages are used for smelling which helps to locate patchily distributed prey at sea and may also help locate their nests within nesting colonies. Also, they have a stomach oil stored that can be used as a food source during their long flights and also as a defense mechanism. All birds have an enlarged nasal gland at the base of the bill, above their eyes. This gland is inactive in species that don't require it; however the Procellariiformes do require its use due to their drinking of ocean water. It removes salt that forms a 5% saline solution that drips out of their nose or is forcibly ejected in some petrels.



Petrels

Order Procellariiformes    Family Procellariidae


The page contains members of the Procellariidae that are called petrels. Most petrel species are placed in genus Pterodroma, the gadlfy petrels. The gadfly petrels are named for their speedy weaving flight. These medium to large petrels feed on food items picked from the ocean surface. The short, sturdy bills are adapted for soft prey taken at the surface. These birds nest in colonies on islands and are pelagic when not breeding. One white egg is laid usually in a burrow or on open ground. They are nocturnal at the breeding colonies. While generally wide-ranging, are confined to a single ocean basin (e.g. Atlantic), and vagrancy is not common.


Genus Aphrodroma - 1 species

Petrel,_Kerguelen  Aphrodroma brevirostris  Found: Africa, Australasia, South America
Image by: 1) Mike_Danzenbaker



Genus Bulweria

Petrel,_Bulwer's  Bulweria bulwerii   Found: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America,
The Bulwer's Petrel has mainly dark brown plumage.
Image by: 1) Duncan - Hawaii  2) Visit_Madeira  3) Chris_Barlow - Madeira


Petrel, Jouanin's  Bulweria fallax Found: east Africa, Australasia, India, Indonesia
Image by: 1) Shantanuprasad   2) Mile Barth - United Arab Emirates



Genus Daption - 1 species

Petrel, Cape  Daption capense    Found: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America
Image by: 1) David Cook  2) dFaulder West - Falkland Islands  3) Charlie Westerinen - the Drake Passage 



Genus Halobaena - 1 species

Petrel, Blue  Halobaena caerulea Found: Africa, Antarctic, Australia, South America
Image by Charlie Westerinen - the Drake Passage



Genus Macronectes

Petrel, Northern Giant  Macronectes halli    Found: Africa, Antarctic, Australasia, South America
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Liam Quinn - South Georgia island in the Southern Atlantic  4) Charlie Westerinen - Drake Passage
2) The blood of its face is from dinner.


Petrel, Southern Giant  Macronectes giganteus    Found: Africa, Antarctic , Asia, Australasia, South America
Image by: 1) James Slaughter - U.S.Antarctic Progrram  2, 4, 5) Charlie Westerinen - Drake Passage  4) Cláudio Timm - Argentina
1, 2) Juvenile



Genus Pagodroma - 1 species

Petrel, Snow  Pagodroma nivea    Found: - Antarctic region, Australasia, South America
Image by: 1) Samuel Blanc  2) Mathieu Weber - Antartic  3) Mila Zinkova



Genus Procellaria

Petrel, Black also  Parkinson's Petrel  Procellaria parkinsoni  Found: Australasia, North America, South America,
Image by: 1) Aviceda - New Zealand  2, 3) Charlie Westerinen - continental shelf out of Wollongong, Australia


Petrel,_Gray   Procellaria cinerea  Found: southern hemisphere oceans (Africa, Australasia, South America)
The Gray Petrel has grayish-brown upperparts; white underparts; ash-gray under-wings, under-tail; yellow-green bill; ping-gray feet.
Image by: 1)


Petrel,_Spectacled   Procellaria conspicillata  Found: South Atlantic (Africa, South America)
The Spectacled Petrel has mainly black plumage; white bands around the eyes; yellow bill.
Image by: 1) Brian_Gratwicke


Petrel,_Westland   Procellaria westlandica  Found: Chile, New Zealand
The Westland Petrel has blackish plumage; dark legs; yellow bill.
Image by: 1) Mark_Jobling  2, 3) Pablo_Caceres_Contreras - Chile


Petrel,_White-chinned   Procellaria aequinoctialis  Found: Africa, Australasia, South America
The White-chinned Petrel has mainly sooty-black plumage; some white on chin, throat; horn or yellow bill with black tip; black feet. One of largest species of the family.
Image by: 1) Pablo_Caceres_Contreras  2, 3) Mjobling - New Zealand  4) Ian_White - Namibia



Genus Pseudobulweria 
These petrels were once included with the gadfly petrels of genus Pterodroma. However, they are now thought to be closer to the shearwaters.

Petrel,_Beck's   Pseudobulweria becki  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) British_Ornithologists'_Club  2) Tony Morris - New Guinea
1) Juvenile


Petrel,_Fiji   Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi   Found: Fiji
Image by: 1) Shiriai


Petrel,_Tahiti   Pseudobulweria rostrata  Found: Africa, Asia, Australasia
Image by: 1, 2) Tony_Morris



Genus Pterodroma
The gadfly petrels are named for their speedy weaving flight. These medium to large petrels feed on food items picked from the ocean surface. The short, sturdy bills are adapted for soft prey taken at the surface. These birds nest in colonies on islands and are pelagic when not breeding. One white egg is laid usually in a burrow or on open ground. They are nocturnal at the breeding colonies. While generally wide-ranging, most Pterodroma species are confined to a single ocean basin (e.g. Atlantic), and vagrancy is as common

Petrel,_Atlantic   Pterodroma incerta Found: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, South America
The Atlantic Petrel breed on 2 small islands far west of Nambiba. It ranges at sea between Brazil to Namibia.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2) Biodiversity_Heritage_Library  3) Graham_Ekins
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Petrel, Barau's  Pterodroma baraui  Found: Africa, Australasia, India
Image by: 1) B Navez  2, 3, 4) Colours of Reunion
1) Fledgling


Petrel,_Bermuda   Pterodroma cahow Found: Bermuda, North America
The Bermuda Petrel has grayish-black crown, collar; dark gray upper-wings, tail; white upper-tail, underparts.
Image by: 1) JG_Howes  2) Richard Crossley


Petrel, Black-capped   Pterodroma hasitata  Found: east North America , South America, Caribbean
Black-capped Petrel differentiated by its black-tipped tail.
Image by: 1, 2) Patrick Coin - North Carolina  3) Dan Irizarry - North Carolina


Petrel,_Black-winged   Pterodroma nigripennis Found: Asia, Australiasia. South America
The Black-winged Petrel has gray upperparts; darker wings; white under-wings in center reqion; black under-wings near edges; white underparts.
Image by: 1) Christopher_Watson - off Queensland  2) Tom_Tarrant - Fiji  3) Tony_Morris


Petrel,_Bonin   Pterodroma hypoleuca Found: Hawaiian, Japan, Midway Atoll
Image by: 1) HarmonyOnPlanetEarth - Midway Atoll  2) Forest_and_Kim_Starr - Midway Atoll  3, 4) Tony Morris


Petrel,_Chatham   Pterodroma axillaris Found: Chatham Islands of New Zealand,
The Chatham Petrel has slate gray upperparts, upper-wings; mottled gray and white forehead; white underparts; white under-wing with dark edges.
Image by: 1) Frederick_Godman


Petrel, Cook's   Pterodroma cookii  Found: Australasia, North America, South America
Similar to: Mottled Petrel. Cook's Petrel and Mottled Petrel can be differentiated by their underwings. Mottled Petrel has wider black edges than Cook's Petrel.
Image by: 1, 2) Aviceda  3) AngrySunbird


Petrel,_De_Filippi'salso Masatierra_Petrel   Pterodroma defilippiana Found: coast of Chile and Peru
The De Filippi's Petrel has dark gray upperparts, crown mask; white forehead, underparts.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2, 3) Pablo_Caceres_Contreras


Petrel,_Fea's   Pterodroma feae Found: Africa, Europe, North America
The Fea's Petrel has gray back, wings; dark under-wings but light near body; white underparts.
Similar to: Zino's Petrel. Fea's Petrel is larger than Zino's Petrel and also has a thicker black bill.
Image by: 1) Toddamcgrath


Petrel,_Galapagos  Pterodroma phaeopygia Found: breeds on Galapagos Islands, Also North America, South America
The Galapagos Petrel breeds on the Galapagos Islands and may be found off the west coast of Central and South America.
Similar to: Hawaiian Petrel. Galapagos Petrel and Hawaiian Petrel were previously considered to be the same species.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2, 3, 4) Lip_kee


Petrel,_Gould's   Pterodroma leucoptera Found: Asia, Australasia, west coast South America
Image by: 1) Christopher_Watson  2) Tom_Tarrant


Petrel, Great-winged  Pterodroma macroptera  Found: Africa, Australasia, North America, South America
The Great-winged Petrel has mainly dark brown plumage; white patch near base of bill; black bill.
Image by: 1) Joe Novella  2) JJ Harrison   3) Charlie Westerinen - east of Wollongong,Australia


Petrel,_Hawaiian   Pterodroma sandwichensis Found: Hawaii, Asia
The Hawaiian Petrel has mainly dark gray-brown upperparts; white underparts.
Similar to: Galapagos Petrel. Galapagos Petrel and Hawaiian Petrel were previously considered to be the same species.
Image by: 1) US_National_Park_Service  2) Jim_Denny


Petrel,_Herald  Pterodroma heraldica  Found: Australasia, North America, west coast South America.
The Herald Petrel and Trindade Petrel were formerly consider the same species.
Similar to: Murphy's Petrel. Underwings of Murphy's Petrel darker than underwings of Herald Petrel.
Image by:  1) Pablo_Caceres_Contreras  2) Paula
1) Light phase  2) Dark phase


Petrel,_Juan_Fernandez   Pterodroma externa Found: Asia, Australasia, Chile
The Juan Fernandez Petrel has dark grayish-brown upperparts; white underparts; black cap extends below eyes; black bill.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2) Pato_Novoa


Petrel, Kermadec  Pterodroma neglecta  Found: , Asia, Australasia, Antarctica, Mexico, South America
Image by:1) Lance Andrewes - Meyer Island  2) ZooPro  3) Charlie Westerinen - Antarctica


Petrel,_Magenta   Pterodroma magentae Found: Australasia
Image by: 1) Houi - Chatham Island


Petrel, Mottled   Pterodroma inexpectata   Found: The Americas, Asia, Australasia
Similar to: Cook's Petrel. Cook's Petrel and Mottled Petrel can be differentiated by their underwings. Mottled Petrel has wider black edges than Cook's Petrel.
Image by: 1) Godman  2) Thomas Mattern - Snares Island, New Zealand  3) Dominique Filippe- Snares Island


Petrel, Murphy's  Pterodroma ultima  Found: west coast The Americas
Similar to: Herald Petrel. Underwings of Murphy's Petrel darker than underwings of Herald Petrel.
Image by: 1, 2) Angela Kepler - Ducie Island


Petrel,_Phoenix   Pterodroma albaFound: Australasia, South America
The Phoenix Petrel has dark brown upperparts; dark upper-breast; white rest underparts.
Image by: 1) Far_South_Expeditions


Petrel,_Pycroft's   Pterodroma pycrofti Found: New Zealand and at sea
Image by: 1) naturgucker


Petrel, Soft-plumaged  Pterodroma mollis  Found: south Africa, Madagascar, Australasia
The Soft-plumaged Petrel has mottled gray upperparts; gray head, collar; white supercilium, underparts.
Image by: 1) Zoopro  2, 3) Dan Mantle


Petrel._Stejneger's   Pterodroma longirostris Found: Pacific Ocean (Asia, North America, South America)
The Stenheger's Petrel occurs in the Pacific Ocean, nesting in the Juan Fernández Islands off Chile. It is a transequatorial migrant, finding its way to subtropical waters off Japan before returning to its nesting sites. It has been reported well off the west coast of the United States.
Image by: 1) Peter_Hodum


Petrel,_Trindade  Pterodroma arminjoniana   Found: Africa,  Australasia, Europe, North America, South America
The Herald Petrel and Trindade Petrel were formerly consider the same species.
Similar to: Murphy's Petrel. Underwings of Murphy's Petrel darker than underwings of Herald Petrel.
Image by: 1, 2) John Gerrard Keulemans   3) Justin_Hart - Azores
1) Light phase  2) Dark phase


Petrel,_Vanuatu   Pterodroma occulta Found: Australasia
Image by: 1) Hadoram Shirihai


Petrel_White-headed   Pterodroma lessonii Found: Africa, Australasia, off west coast South America
Image by: 1) Tom_Tarrant - east coast Australia  2) JJ_Harrison - Tasmania, Australia


Petrel,_White-necked   Pterodroma cervicalis Found: Asia, Australasia
The White-necked Petrel has dark gray upperparts; black cap; white neck, underparts
Image by: 1) Joseph_Smit


Petrel,_Zino's   Pterodroma madeira Found: Mauriatania and Senegaal (Africa). Also Europe, North America
The Zino's Petrel has gray back, wings; blackish under-wings except near breast; white belly with gray flanks.
Similar to: Fea's Petrel. Fea's Petrel is larger than Zino's Petrel and also has a thicker black bill.
Image by: 1) Life_Programme  2, 3) Leo Gregory



Genus Thalassoica - 1 species

Petrel, Antarctic  Thalassoica antarctica    Found: the Antarctic region, Australasia
Image by: 1) Martha de Jong-Lantink  2) Nigel_Voaden - Antarctic Peninsula  3) David_Cook





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