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OVENBIRDS

Order Passeriformes    Family Furnaridae

This is a large family of small to medium-sized birds, ranging from 9 to 35 centimetres in length. The ovenbirds are a diverse group of insectivores which get their name from the elaborate, vaguely "oven-like" clay nests built by the Horneros, although most other ovenbirds build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. Furnariid nests are always constructed with a cover. While individial species often are habitat specialists, species of this family can be found in virtually any Neotropical habitat, ranging from city parks inhabited by Rufous Horneros, to tropical Amazonian lowlands by many species of Foliage-gleaners, to temperate barren Andean highlands inhabited by several species of Miners. There are even two species, the Seaside and the Surf Cinclodes,which are associated with rocky coasts.

Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus, of family Parulidae is unrelated to birds in the ovenbird family, Furnariidae. For both cases, the name derives from the oven-like nests that are created.



Spinetails and allies

These spinetails are unrelated to the swift spinetails.


Genus Anumbius - 1 species

Firewood-gather Anumbius annumbi  Found: southern South America
The Firewood-gather is named because it gathers "wood" for its massive nest. It has a white supercilium; rounded tip of tail. It behaves like a pipit.
Image by: Image by:  1) Cláudio Timm - Brazil  2) Aaron Maizlish - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas - Brazil  4) Francesco_Veronesi - Brazil



Genus Aphrastura

Rayodita, Masafuera  Aphrastura masafuerae  Found: Chile
The Masafuera Rayodita is endemic to Alejandro Selkirk Island of Chile. There are only about 100 left.
Image by: 1) Jospeh Smit  2) Peter Hodum  3) Island Conservation


Rayodita,_Thorn-tailed  Aphrastura spinicauda  Found: South America
The Thorn-tailed Rayodita has buff and black head stripes; buff and black wing pattern; spiny tail projections
Image by: Arthur Chapman - Argentina  2) Dominic Sherony - Argentina  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina  4) Claudio_Timm



Genus Asthenes
The name "canastero" comes from Spanish and means "basket-maker", referring to the species' large, domed nests made of sticks or grass.There are usually brownish in color, paler on the underpartsl; often have a small throat patch.

Canastero,_Austral  Asthenes anthoides  Found: southern Argentina, Chile
The Austral Canastero is the southernmost representative of the “striped” canastero group, one that is often associated with grass farther north in the continent.
Image by:1) Collaertsbrothers - Argentina  2) Nick Athanas - Chile  3) Daniele_Colombo


Canastero, Berlepsch's  Asthenes berlepschi  Found: Bolivia
The Berlepsch's Canastero is only found on slopes of Mt. Illampu in La Paz Department, Bolivia. The outer two tail feathers are rufous.
Image by: 1) Ian Davies - Bolivia


Canastero,_Canyon  Asthenes pudibunda  Found: Peru
The Canyon Canastero has warm brown upperparts; paler underparts; faint supercilium; rufous tail. The tail is often held elevated.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Arthur Grosset  3) Nick Athanas


Canastero,_Cipo  Asthenes luizae  Found: Brazil
The Cipo Canastero is a Brazilian endemic restricted to a handful of localities in south-central Minas Gerais, where it inhabits isolated rocky outcrops and associated dry vegetation between 1000 and 2000 m.
Image by: 1) Jose Quental 2) Derek Kverno  3) Nick Athanas  4) Rick_elis_simpson


Canastero,_Cordilleran  Asthenes modesta  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru
The Cordilleran Canastero has tan upperparts; pale supercilium; pale buffy underparts; rufous outer tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai - Chile  2) Ron Kinght - Argentina  3) Nick Athanas - Chile, Argentina


Canastero, Hudson's  Asthenes hudsoni  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
The Hudson's Canastero is particularly fond of moist, tall native grassland and adjacent to wetlands. Hudson’s Canasteros stay well hidden in the grass, but particularly early in the morning send out a strong trill that accelerates at the end.
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm - Brazil  2) Hecotr Bottai - Brazil


Canastero,_Junin  Asthenes virgata  Found: Peru
The Junin Canastero has brown upperparts; mantle and underparts heavily streaked with buff.
Image by: 1) Carlos Calle  2) Nick Athanas


Canastero, Line-fronted  Asthenes urubambensis  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Line-fronted Canastero has rich brown upperparts; white supercilium; dark brown streaking against white background on face, breast; rufous-orange chin patch.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Peru  2) Juan Luna - Peru


Canastero,_Many-striped  Asthenes flammulata  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Many-striped Canastero has mainly brown plumage with heavy white streaking on head, mantle, underparts.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  2) Don Faulkner - Ecuador  3) Francesco Veronesi - Columbia   4) Tony_Castro - Ecuador


Canastero, Maquis  Asthenes heterura  Found: Andes of west Bolivia
The Maquis Canastero has brown upperparts; grayish supercilium; rufous-chestnut tail, wings, throat patch.
Image by: 1) James Lowen


Canastero,_Puna  Asthenes sclateri  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
The main portion of this Puna Canastero’s distribution is from Puno Peru south through the Andes of Bolivia to NW Argentina. It is closely related and quite similar in appearance to the more northerly Streak-backed Canastero
Image by: 1) Pinned  2) Silvia Vitale 3) Nick Athanas - Argentina


Canastero, Rusty-fronted  Asthenes ottonis  Found: Peru
The Rusty-fronted Canastero has mainly brown plumage; small rufous throat patch; faint streaking.
Image by: 1) Daniel Lane - Peru


Canastero, Rusty-vented also Creamy-breasted Canastero  Asthenes dorbignyi  Found: Chile, Bolivia, Argentina
The Rusty-vented Canastero has brown or rusty-brown upperparts; rusty rump; pale gray or whitish underparts; blackish tail.
Image by: 1)) Ron Knight - Argentina  2) Nick Athanas - Argentina


Canastero, Scribble-tailed  Asthenes maculicauda  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
The Scribble-tailed Canastero has heavily streaked mantle, underparts; rufous forehead. The "scribble" refers to random dark markings on the tail.
Image by: 1) Daniel Lane


Canastero, Sharp-billed also Lesser Canastero  Asthenes pyrrholeuca  Found: South America
The Sharp-billed Canastero has mainly dull brownish plumage; gray head; slim pointed bill; small red patch on throat; rufous on outer tail feathers
Image by: 1) Ruben Blanco - Chile  2) Claudio Timm


Canastero, Short-billed  Asthenes baeri  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguaya
The Short-billed Canastero has mainly light brown plumage; lighter on underparts; gray wash on throat; rufous throat patch; blue-gray bill.
Image by:  Claudio Timm - Brazil 


Canastero_ Streak-backed  Asthenes wyatti  Found: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Streak-backed Canastero has dull brown upperparts with varied streaking depending on subspecies.buff underparts.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Dominic Sherony - Peru  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Canastero,_Streak-throated  Asthenes humilis  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Streak-throated Canastero has dull brown upperparts; pale brown underparts; rufous-orange chin; some darked streaking on the throat.
Image by: 1) Carlo Castellani - Bolivia  2) Richard Gibbons - Peru  3) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail,_Itatiaia  Asthenes moreirae  Found: southeast Brazil
The Itatiaia Spinetail is endemic to a relatively small area, encompassing four Brazilian states, those of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo.
Image by: 1) Nigel Voaden - Brazil  2) Baraodorio  3) Nick Athanas


Thistletail,_Ayacucho   Asthenes ayacuchensis   Found: Peru
The Ayacucho Thistletail was previously conspecific with Vilcabamba Thistletail. It has a darker and richer throat.
Image by: 1) hbw.com


Thistletail, Black-throated  Asthenes harterti  Found: Bolivia
The Black-throated Thistletail has rusty-brown upperparts; buffy supercilium; gray underparts with brown stripes; white chin and relatively large black throat patch.
Image by: 1) Alarcon & Mateu


Thistletail,_Eye-ringed  Asthenes palpebralis  Found: Peru
The Eye-ringed Thistletail has a bold white eye-ring; thin tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Carlos Calle  2) Nick Athanas


Thistletail,_Mouse-colored  Asthenes griseomurina  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Mouse-colored Thistletail has dull olive-brown upperparts; white eye-ring; gray underparts; small white chin spot.
Image by: 1) Francesco Veronesi  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Thistletail, Ochre-browed  Asthenes coryi  Found: Venezuela
The Ochre-browed Thistletail has olive-brown upperparts; gray crown; gray-brown underparts.
Image by: 1) Miranda


Thistletail, Perija  Asthenes perijana  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The Perija Thistletail has olive-brown upperparts;
Image by: 1, 2) Andres Cuervo - Columbia


Thistletail,_Puna  Asthenes helleri  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Puna Thistletail has dark rufous upperparts; black upperparts; rufous or white chin; pale white supercilium.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas


Thistletail,_Vilcabamba   Asthenes vilcabambae   Found: Vicabamb mountains of Peru
The Vilcabamba Thistletail has olive-brown upperpart; gray underparts; small rufous chin spot; long spike-tipped tail. The Vilcabamba thistletail was previously conspecific with White-chinned Thistletail.
Image by: 1) hbw.com


Thistletail,_White-chinned  Asthenes fuliginosa  Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The White-chinned Thistletail has dark chestnut-brown on the upperparts; gray eye-line; gray underparts with white chin.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Nick Athanas - Ecuador, Ecuador, Columbia, Peru  5) Francesco Veronesi - Ecuador




Genus Certhiaxis

Spinetail,_Yellow-chinned  Certhiaxis cinnamomeus  Found: South America
The Yellow-chinned Spinetail has rufous upperparts; white underparts; pale grayish supercilium. Yellow on the chin is difficult to observe.
Similar to: Red-and-White Spinetall. Yellow-chinned Spinetail has pale supercilium; Red-and-White Spinetai does not.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  4) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail, Red-and-White  Certhiaxis mustelinus  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Peru
The Red-and-White Spinetail has red upperparts; white underparts.
Similar to: Yellow-chinned Spinetail. Yellow-chinned Spinetail has pale supercilium; Red-and-White Spinetai does not.
Image by: 1) Andrew Whittaker - Brazil



Genus Coryphistera

Brushrunner,_Lark-like  Coryphistera alaudina  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
The Lark-like Brushrunner has a crest and otherwise resembles a lark.
Image by:  1) Claudio Timm - Brazil  2) Ron Knight - Argentina  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina



Genus Cranioleuca

Spinetail,_Ash-browed  Cranioleuca curtata  Found: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Ash-browed Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; ash colored supercilium; rufous crown, wings, tail; olive-gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Biodiversity Library  2) Juan Casas  3) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail,_Baron's  Cranioleuca baroni  Found: Peru
The Baron's Spinetail has dark grayish-brown mantle; rufous crown, wings, tail; white supercilium, throat; grayish underparts with shaft streaking.
Similar to: Line-cheeked Spinetail. Line-cheeked Spinetail range is north of Baron's Spinetail range. They may interbreed at range border.
Image by: 1) Glenn Bartley  2) Nick Athanas  3) Jorge_Montejo


Spinetail, Bolivian  Cranioleuca henricae  Found: Bolivia
The Bolivian Spinetail has brownish-olive upperparts; rufous crown, wings, tail; bold whitish supercilium; grayish face, underparts.
Image by: 1) Jon Hornbuckle


Spinetail,_Creamy-crested  Cranioleuca albicapilla  Found: Peru
The Creamy-crested Spinetail has long graduated rufous tail; cream colored crest; dark rufous wing coverts.
Image by: 1) Glenn Bartley  2) Nick Athanas  3) Claudio_Timm  4) Tony_Castro


Spinetail, Crested  Cranioleuca subcristata  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
Image by: Joseph Smit


Spinetail, Gray-headed  Cranioleuca semicinerea  Found: Brazil
The Gray-headed Spinetail has rufous upperparts; ashy-gray head, neck; pinkish bill.
Image by: 1) Stephen Jones


Spinetail, Light-crowned  Cranioleuca albiceps  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Light-crowned Spinetail has rufous upperparts; whitish crown; dark olive face, underparts.
Image by: 1) Orbigny  2) Daniel Lane - Bolivia


Spinetail,_Line-cheeked  Cranioleuca antisiensis  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Line-cheeked Spinetail has brown to olive-gray upperparts; pale throat; white supercilium and thin dark eye-line (hence the name Line-cheeked).
Similar to: Baron's Spinetail. Line-cheeked Spinetail range is north of Baron's Spinetail range. They may interbreed at range border.
Image by: 1) David Cook - Peru  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail,_Marcapata  Cranioleuca marcapatae  Found: Peru
The Marcapata Spinetail has rufous upperparts; gray face, neck, supercilium; narrow black line above supercilium; whitish throat. The nominate subspecies has rufuous crown, whitish throat. C. m. weski has white crown, cream throat.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Peru  2) Jacob Drucker  3, 4, 5) Nick Athanas - Peru



Spinetail, Olive  Cranioleuca obsoleta  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
The Olive Spinetail has brownish-olive upperparts; whitish supercilium; rufous wing-coverts, tail.
Similar to: Pallid Spinetail. Pallid Spinetail has rufous crown; Olive Spinetail has olive-brown crown.
Image by: 1) Ben Tavener - Brazil  2, 3) Cláudio Dias Timm


Spinetail,_Pallid  Cranioleuca pallida  Found: Brazil
The Pallid Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; lighter lowerparts; rufous crown; entirely rufous wings; chestnut tail; whitish supercilium.
Similar to: Olive Spinetail. Pallid Spinetail has rufous crown; Olive Spinetail has olive-brown crown.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas


Spinetail,_Parker's  Cranioleuca vulpecula  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
The Parker's Spinetail has bright rufous-upperparts; dull grayish-brown underparts; whiter throat.
Image by: 1) David Ascanio  2) Claudio_Timm


Spinetail,_Red-faced  Cranioleuca erythrops  Found: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama
The Red-faced Spinetail has mainly gray plumage; red face, wings, tail.
Image by: 1, 2) Nick Athanas - Ecuadpr  3) Francesco Veronesi - Columbia   4) Arley_Vargas
1) Juvenile


Spinetail,_Rusty-backed  Cranioleuca vulpina  Found: Panama, central and northern South America
The Rusty-backed Spinetail has red-brown upperparts, tail, crown; pale supercilium, face, underparts.
Image by: 1) Jorge Montejo  2) Dario Sanches  3) Nick Athanas - Brazil  4) Claudio Timm


Spinetail, Scaled  Cranioleuca muelleri  Found: northeast Brazil
The Scaled Spinetail has dark brown upperparts; rufous crown, wings, tail; pale supercilium; heavily scaled throat, underparts.
Image by: 1) Baike.com


Spinetail, Speckled  Cranioleuca gutturata  Found: South America
The Speckled Spinetail has dark olive-brown upperparts; dull buff underparts; rufous crown; thin buff supercilium; heavy dark speckling on breast.
Image by: 1) Joao Quental - Peru


Spinetail,_Streak-capped  Cranioleuca hellmayri  Found: northern Columbia
The Streak-capped Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous crown, wings, tail; black streaked crown.
Image by: 1) Juan Arango  2)  Nick Athanas


Spinetail,_Stripe-crowned  Cranioleuca pyrrhophia  Found: South America
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm - Uruguay   2) Nick Athanas - Argentina


Spinetail, Sulpher-throated also Sulpher-bearded Spinetail  Cranioleuca sulphurifera  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
The Sulpher-throated Spinetail has rufous-orange upperparts; white supercilium; dark eye-line; orange-yellow throat-patch; gray streaked underparts
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Cláudio Timm - Brazil


Spinetail, Tepui  Cranioleuca demissa  Found: Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela
The Tepui Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous crown wings, tail; gray neck, underparts.
Image by: 1) JA_Jacomelli - Venezuela



Genus Graveteiro - 1 species

Graveteiro, Pink-legged  Acrobatornis fonsecai   Found: Brazil
The Pink-legged Graveteiro has mainly gray plumage; blackish cap, wings; pink legs, feet.
Image by: 1) Ciro Albano



Genus Hellmayrea - 1 species

Spinetail,_White-browed   Hellmayrea gularis  Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The White-browned Spinetail has mainly rufous-brown plumage; white supercilium;
Image by: 1, 2) Andrés Cuervo - Columbia



Genus Leptasthenura
The Tit-spinetails are found in South America, particularly the southern and Andean parts of the continent. They are somewhat similar to birds of the tit family in their shape and feeding behaviour, hence the first part of their name. The "spinetail" part of their name refers to their long, pointed tail feathers. Tit-spinetails have short rounded wings, short pointed bills and are mainly brown in colour. Their nests are built in holes or in the old nests of other birds.

Spinetail,_Andean_Tit-  Leptasthenura andicola  Found: South America
The Andean Tit-Spinetail has dark gray-brown upperparts; pale brown underparts; white streaks on back, neck, face, underparts.
Image by: 1) Francesco Veronesi - south Ecuador  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail,_Araucaria_Tit-  Leptasthenura setaria  Found: southeast Brazil, nrortheast Argentina
The Araucaria Tit-Spinetail has russet-brown upperparts; buffy-brown underparts; blackish streaked throat; pale supercilium.;
Image by: 1) Claudio_Timm - Brazil  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail_ Brown-capped_Tit-  Leptasthenura fuliginiceps  Found: Argentina, Bolivia
The Brown-capped Tit-Spinetail has mainly brown plumage;  some rufous tinge to wings, tail; pale buffy supercilium.
Image by: 1) Orbigny  2) Ron Knight - Argentina  Nick Athanas 3, 4) Argentina


Spinetail,_Plain-mantled_Tit-  Leptasthenura aegithaloides  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru
The Plain-Mantled Tit-Spinetail plumage varies among subspecies. The nominate has mainly brown plumage; paler underparts; white supercilium. Another is more buff colored. Others are pale and grayish. All have a small bill like a chickadee and they fill the same ecological niche.
Image by: 1, 2) Jorge Cardenas - Chile  3, 4) Nick Athanas - Argenitina


Spinetail,_Rusty-crowned_Tit-  Leptasthenura pileata  Found: Peru
The Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail has a long tail; rustry crown; streaks over much of plumage; crown may be streaked depending on subspecies.
Image by: 1) David Cook  2) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail, Streaked Tit-  Leptasthenura striata  Found: Chile, Peru
The Streaked Tit-Spinetail has gray-brown upperparts with white streaks; pale-brown underparts; white supercilium; black spotted white throat; black streaked rufous crown.
Image by: 1) Nature Steve  2) Arthur Grosset


Spinetail,_Striolated_Tit-  Leptasthenura striolata  Found: southeast Brazil
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil  3) Claudio_Timm


Spinetail,_Tawny Tit-  Leptasthenura yanacensis  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
The Tawny Tit-Spinetail has mainly tawny (orange cinnamon) plumage; rufous-chestnut tail; pale superciliium.
Image by: 1) Ron Knight - Argentina  2) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail, Tufted Tit-  Leptasthenura platensis  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
The Tufted Tit-Spinetail has a crest..
Image by: 1, 2) Hector Bottai - Argentina 


Spinetail,_White-browed_Tit-  Leptasthenura xenothorax  Found: south central Peru
The White-browed Tit-Spinetail has a rufous head with white supercilium; whitish streaking on upperparts.
Image by: 1) Fabrice Schmidt  2) Kristian Svensson  3) Nick Athanas - Peru



Genus Metopothrix - 1 species

Plushcrown, Orange-fronted Metopothrix aurantiaca Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Orange-fronted Plushcrown has mainly green plumage; yellow/orange forehead; orange legs, feet.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Brayan Coral Jaramillo - Columbia



Genus  Phacellodomus
These thornbirds are found in woodland, shrubland and grassland, often near water, in South America.

Thornbird,_Chestnut-backed Phacellodomus dorsalis  Found: Peru
The Chestnut-backed Thornbird has rufous to warm brown upperparts; pale underparts; indistinct brown breast-band with white spots; pale supercilium.
Image by: 1) David Cook  2) Nick Athanas - Peru


Thornbird,_Freckle-breasted   Phacellodomus striaticollis  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay
The Freckle-breasted Thornbird is similar to Spot-breasted Thornbird but lighter. Spots on Freckle-breasted Thornbird hss barely visible spots on breast.
Image by: 1) Rick Simpson  2) Claudio Timm - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina


Thornbird,_Greater  Phacellodomus ruber  Found: South America
The Greater Thornbird has reddish upperparts; yellow eyes.
Image by: 1) Hector_Bottai  2) Cláudio Timm - Argentina  3) Cristiano Crolle - Argentina  4) Gustavo_Fernando_Duran- Argentina


Thornbird,_Little   Phacellodomus sibilatrix  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay
The Little Thornbird has brownish plumage; lighter underparts; white throat, supercilium; blue-gray based bill.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai - Argentina  2) Nick Athanas - Argentina  3) Claudio_Timm


Thornbird,_Orange-breasted also Red-eyed Thornbird  Phacellodomus ferrugineigula  Found: Brazil, Uraguay
Similar to: Orange-eyed Thornbird. The Orange-eyed Thornbird has reddish-chestnut central tail feathers; orange-eyed has brownish-olive central tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil  3) Claudio_Timm  4) Rick_elis_simpson


Thornbird,_Orange-eyed   Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus  Found: Brazil
Similar to: Orange-breasted Thornbird. The Orange-eyed Thornbird has reddish-chestnut central tail feathers; orange-eyed has brownish-olive central tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil  3) Brendan_Ryan


Thornbird, Rufous-fronted    Phacellodomus rufifrons  Found: South America
The Rufous-fronted Thornbird has brown upperparts; brownish-white underparts; rufous forecrown on some subspecies, brown on others.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai  2) Carlos Henrique  3) Nick Athanas -Brazil


Thornbird,_Spot-breasted   Phacellodomus maculipectus  Found: northwest Argentina and adjacent Bolivia
The Spot-breasted Thornbird has mainly brown plumage; rufous face; whitish supercilium, throat; pale spots on breast.
Image by: 1) Daniel Lane - Bolivia  2) Ian Davies - Argentina  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina


Thornbird, Streak-fronted Phacellodomus striaticeps  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
The Streak-fronted Thornbird has slightly streaked crown; rufous shoulders, sides; darker tail.
Image by: 1) Tony_Castro - Peru  2) Jorge La Grotteria  3) Nick Athanas- Argentina



Genus Pseudasthenes

Canastero,_Cactus  Pseudasthenes cactorum   Found: Peru, Chile
The Cactus Canastero nests in cactus. It has gray or grayish-brown plumage.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Peru 2) Nick Athanas - Peru


Canastero, Dusky-tailed  Pseudasthenes humicola   Found: Chile
The Dusky-tailed Canastero has brown upperparts; white supercilium; darker crown; dark gray tail; pale throat; light gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Flavio Camus - Chile   2) Joven Gandalf - Chile  3) Diego Arellano


Canastero, Patagonian  Pseudasthenes patagonica   Found:
The Patagonian Canastero has brown upperparts; pale streaked gray underparts; pale supercilium.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony


Canastero, Steinbach's Pseudasthenes steinbachi   Found: Argentina
The Steinbach's Canastero has gray crown mantle; rufous tinged lower back; rufous tail.
Image by: 1) Ron Knight - Argentina



Genus Pseudoseisura
The cacholotes are relatively large, heavy-billed Furnariids. They are found in shrubby habitats in the South American countries of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. They are essentially brown (ranging from deep rufous to pale gray-brown depending on species), and all are crested to some extent.

Cacholote,_Brown  Pseudoseisura lophotes  Found: central and south South America
The Brown Cacholote has mainly brown plumage; lighter underparts; darker crest.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Hector Bottai  3) Claudio_Timm


Cacholote, Caatinga  Pseudoseisura cristata  Found: northeast Brazil
The Caatinga Cacholote has rufous plumage; yellow eyes; heavy bill.
Similar to: Rufous Cacholote. The Caatinga Cacholote has a thicker bill than the Rufous Cacholote. The Rufous Cacholote has a duller crest.
Image by: 1) Bart van Dorp


Cacholote, Rufous  also  Gray-crested Cacholote   Pseudoseisura unirufa   Found: Bolilvia, Brazil, Paraguay
The Rufous Cacholote has bright red plumage; yellow eyes; thin bill.
Similar to: Caatinga Cacholote. The Caatinga Cacholote has a thicker bill than the Rufous Cacholote. The Rufous Cacholote has a duller crest.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai - Brazil  2) Jorge Montejo - Brazil  3) Carlos Henrique


Cacholote,_White-throated  Pseudoseisura gutturalis  Found: Argentina
The White-throated Cacholote has mainly dull brown plumage; white throat.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2, 3) Nick Athanas - Argentina



Genus Schoeniophylax - 1 species

Spinetail,_Chotoy  Schoeniophylax phryganophilus  Found: South America
The Chotoy Spinetail has heavily streaked upperparts; chestnut crown; black and yellow throat; pale belly.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil   5) Nick Athanas - Brazil




Genus Siptornis - 1 species

Prickletail,_Spectacled  Siptornis striaticollis  Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Spectacled Prickletail has mainly brown plumage; bright chestnut crown; bold white post eye stripe; white spots on underparts.
Image by: 1) Dusan M. Brinkhuizen 



Genus Spartonoica - 1 species

Spinetail, Bay-capped Wren-  Spartonoica maluroides  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
The Bay-capped Wren-Spinetail has black streaks on the upperpart; rufous forecrown; unmarked pale underparts. It is found in marshes and wet areas.
Image by: 1) Orbigny  2) Caco Schwertner  3) Claudio_Timm



Genus Sylviorthorhynchus - 1 species

Wiretail,_Des_Murs's  Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii Found: Argentina, Chile
The Des Murs's Wiretail has reddish-brown upperparts; paler underparts; pale stripe above eye, Six feathers in tail, 2 inner very long.
Image by: 1) Marc  2) Antonilo Maureira  3) Nick Athanas - Chile



Genus Synallaxis

Spinetail, Apurimac  Synallaxis courseni  Found: Peru
The Apurimac Spinetail has mainly gray plumage; rufous crown, wings; black throat patch.
Image by: 1) Carlos Calle


Spinetail,_Azara's  Synallaxis azarae  Found: western Venezuela to northwest Argentina
The Azara's Spinetail has brown upperparts; rufous crown, wings, tail; grayish underparts.
Image by: 1) Fabrice Schmitt  2) Francesco Veronesi - Ecuador  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail, Bahia  Synallaxis ruficapilla  Found: northeast Brazil
The Bahia Spinetail has a rufous cap; dark cheek; rufous wings,
Similar to: Pinto's Spinetail. Pinto's Spinetail has white moustachial stripe; Pinto's Spinetail does not. Pinto's range is north of Bahia's rante.
Similar to: Rufous-capped Spinetail. Bahia Spinetail range is much smaller and northeast of   Rufous-capped Spinetail.
  Image by: 1) Arthur Grosset


Spinetail, Blackish-headed  Synallaxis tithys  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Blackish-headed Spinetail has gray-brown upperparts; black face, throat; rufous wings; dark gray tail; pale gray underparts with whitish mid-belly.
Image by: 1) hneyster  2) Steve Davies - Ecuador


Spinetail, Black-throated  Synallaxis castanea  Found: Venezuela
The Black-throated Spinetail has mainly cinnamon-rufous pluamge; black throat.
Image by: 1) Dilia E. Garcia


Spinetail, Cabanis's  Synallaxis cabanisi  Found: Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia
The Cabanis's Spinetail has olive-brown mantle; rufous-brown crown, wings, tail; darker face mask; gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Joe Tobias


Spinetail,_Chestnut-throated  Synallaxis cherriei  Found: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
The Chestnut-throated Spinetail has rufuous head, throat, breast; olive-gray lower-back, tail.
Similar to: Ruddy Spinetail. Ruddy Spinetail is mainly rufous; Chestnut-throated Spinetail has olive-gray lower-back, tail.
Image by: 1) Joe Tobias  2) Hector_Bottai


Spinetail, Cinereous-breasted  Synallaxis hypospodia  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru.
The Cinereous-breasted Spinetail has brown upperparts; dark throat patch; rufous crown, wings; mostly gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm


Spinetail,_Dark-breasted  Synallaxis albigularis  Found: South America
The Dark-breasted Spinetail has mainly dark gray plumage; rufous crown, nape, wings; whitish throat.
Similar to: White-bellied Spinetail. Dark-breasted Spinetail has rufous crown; White-bellied Spinetail has gray crown.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai - Brazil  2) Anselmo d`Affonseca  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail, Dusky  Synallaxis moesta  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Dusky Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous cap, wings;
Image by: 1) Brooke Keeney


Spinetail,_Gray-bellied  Synallaxis cinerascens  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
The Gray-bellied Spinetail dull rufous crown, tail, wings; white chin patch, black throat patch; gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Nicolas LeJeune  2) Marcel Holyoak - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas - Brazil  4) Claudio_Timm


Spinetail,_Great  Synallaxis hypochondriaca  Found: Peru
The Great Spinetail has brown upperparts, palest on rump; dull brown crown; dark eye-line; broad white supercilium; rufous wings; white underparts with brown-gray streaking on breast.
Image by: 1) Paul Noakes  2) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail, Hoary-throated  Synallaxis kollari  Found: Brazil, Guyana
The Hoary-throated Spinetail has a scalloped white chin with black border below.
Image by: 1) Dave Curtis - Brazil  2) Pinned


Spinetail, Maranon  Synallaxis maranonica  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Maranon Spinetail has brown upperparts; gray underparts; rufous wings, tail; dark gray head.
Image by: 1) Fernando Angulo


Spinetail, McConnell's  Synallaxis macconnelli  Found: northeast South America
The McConnell's Spinetail has dark olive-brown upperparts; bright rufous cap; olive-gray underparts; blackish face, throat.
Image by: 1) Thiago Laranjeiras - Venezuela


Spinetail,_Necklaced  Synallaxis stictothorax  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Necklaced Spinetail has reddish-brown upperparts, wings, tail; white forehead, throat, upper-breast; brownish streaking below the white.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2, 3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador, Peru


Spinetail,_Ochre-cheeked  Synallaxis scutata  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil
The Ochre-cheeked Spinetail has reddish-brown upperparts;  dark gray crown; white supercilium; white throat bordered below in black; buff ear coverts.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Claudio Lopes - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas - Argentina  4) Claudio_Timm


Spinetail,_Pale-breasted  Synallaxis albescens  Found: Costa Rica to Argentina
The Pale-breasted Spinetail has mainly pale brown upperparts; darker wings, tail; rufous crown, shoulder patches.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Hector Bottai - Brazil  3) Alejandro_Tamayo  4) Arley_Vargas


Spinetail,_Pinto's  Synallaxis infuscata  Found: northeast Brazil
The Pinto's Spinetail has has rufous cap, nape, wings, tail; gray face with white moustachial stripe.
Similar to: Bahia Spinetail. Pinto's Spinetail has white moustachial stripe; Pinto's Spinetail does not. Pinto's range is north of Bahia's rante.
Image by: 1) Ciro Albano  2) Nick Athanas


Spinetail,_Plain-crowned   Synallaxis gujanensis  Found: South America
The Plain-crowned Spinetail has brown upperparts; faint supercilium; rufous wings, tail; plain gray head; whitish underparts; tan-buff flanks.
Image by: 1) Kester Clarke - Guyana  3) Nick Athanas - Peru


Spinetail,_Red-shouldered  Synallaxis hellmayri  Found: Caatinga region of northeast Brazil.
The Red-shouldered Spinetail has mainly gray plumage; black throat; red shoulders.
Image by: 1) Ciro Albano  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail, Rio Orinoco  Synallaxis beverlyae  Found: Rio Orinoco in Venezuela
The Rio Orinoco Spinetail has dull grayish-brown upperparts; pale underparts
Image by: 1) Daniel Hinckley


Spinetail,_Ruddy  Synallaxis rutilans  Found: northern South America
The Ruddy Spinetail has mainly dark rufous plumage; blackish chin and throat patch.
Similar to: Chestnut-throated Spinetail. Ruddy Spinetail is mainly rufous; Chestnut-throated Spinetail has olive-gray lower-back, tail.
Image by: 1) Andre Grassi  2) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail,_Rufous  Synallaxis unirufa  Found: in the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Rufous Spinetail has mainly rufous plumage; black lores.
Image by: 1) Jose Loaiza - Ecuador  2) Andres Cuervo - Venezuela  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail, Russet-bellied  Synallaxis zimmeri  Found:
The Russet-bellied Spinetail has gray head, mantle, chin; olive-gray back; white eye-ring; rufous rump, tail; brown throat, breast.
Image by: 1) Ian Davies


Spinetail,_Rufous-breasted  Synallaxis erythrothorax  Found: Mexico, Central America
The Rufous-breasted Spinetail has grayish-brown mantle; paler brown rump, tail; rufous breast, wings; blackish head; blackish throat with thin white streaks.
Image by: 1) Joseph Wolf  2) Alan Harper - Hondoroas  3) Nick Athanas - Mexico


Spinetail, Rufous-capped  Synallaxis cinerea  Found: South America
The Rufous-capped Spinetail has a rufous cap bordered by pale supercilium; dark cheeks.
Similar to: Bahia Spinetail. Bahia Spinetail range is much smaller and northeast of   Rufous-capped Spinetail.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil


Spinetail,_Rusty-headed  Synallaxis fuscorufa  Found: northern Columbia
The Rusty-headed Spinetail has olive-gray back; rusty-orange head, breast; grayish flanks.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) ProAves_Colombia - Columbia


Spinetail,_Silver-throated  Synallaxis subpudica  Found: Andes of eastern Columbia
The Silver-throated Spinetail has olive upperparts; brown-gray underparts; darker gray face; rufous wings; very long gray-brown tail.
Image by: 1) Oswaldo Cortes  2) Nick Athanas


Spinetail,_Slaty  Synallaxis brachyura  Found: southern Central America, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador
The Slaty Spinetail has mainly dark gray plumage; deep chestnut crown, wings; pale gray supercilium.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Costa Rica  2) Francesco Veronesi - Columbia  3) Nick Athanas - Ecuador


Spinetail,_Sooty-fronted   Synallaxis frontalis   Found: South America
The Sooty-fronted Spinetail has brownish upperparts; rufous crown, wings, tail; dull gray underparts; blackish throat patch; pale chin, malar streak.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches  3) Hector_Bottai  4) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail,_Spix's Synallaxis spixi  Found: Argentina, Brazil. Paraguay, Uraguay
The Spix's Spinetail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous crown, wings; dark throat patch; grayish underparts.
Image by:  1, 4) Cláudio Timm - Brazil  2) Dario Sanches - Brazil  3) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail,_Stripe-breasted  Synallaxis cinnamomea  Found:Trinidad, Tobago, Colombia, Venezuela
The Stripe-breasted Spinetail has dark brown upperparts; chestnut wings; white throat with some black streaking; dark-streaked buff underparts.
Image by: 1) Feroze_Omardeen  2) Amanda Navas - Venezuela


Spinetail, White-bellied  Synallaxis propinqua  Found: South America
The White-bellied Spinetail has mainly dark gray plumage; rufous crown, wings; pale underparts.
Similar to: Dark-breasted Spinetail. Dark-breasted Spinetail has rufous crown; White-bellied Spinetail has gray crown.
Image by: 1) Joe Tobias


Spinetail,_White-lored  Synallaxis albilora  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay
Image by: 1) Carlos Henrique  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil


Spinetail,_White-whiskered  Synallaxis candei  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The White-whiskered Spinetail has blackish crown; black face mask, throat; bold white boarder between mask and throat.
Image by: 1) Dave Curtis - Columbia  2) Nick Athanas - Columbia



Genus Thripophaga

Softtail, Delta Amacuro Thripophaga amacurensis  Found: Delta Amacuro in Venezuela.
Image by: 1) David Ascanio


Softtail, Orinoco   Thripophaga cherriei  Found: southwest Venezuela
The Orinoco Softtail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous wings, tail; pale buff supercilium; orange-red throat patch; olive underparts with light streaking on breast.
Image by: 1) David Southhall


Softtail, Plain   Thripophaga fusciceps  Found: Brazil
The Plain Softtail has olive-brown upperparts; rufous wings, tail,
Image by: 1) Adriano Maciel


Softtail,_Russet-mantled   Thripophaga berlepschi  Found: Peru
The Russet-mantled Softtail has mostly oive-brown upperparts; rufous wings, tail.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas


Softtail, Striated  Thripophaga macroura Found: Brazil
The Striated Softtail has rufous-brown upperparts streaked buff on crown, back; dull brown underparts streaked whitish; pale supercilium; bright cinnamon tail; orange-rufous chin patch.
Image by: 1) Ciro Albano  2) Ashok Khosla



Genus Xenerpestes


Graytail, Double-banded  Xenerpestes minlosi  Found: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
The Double-banded Graytail has grayish-olive upperparts; 1 white wing-bars; thin white supercilium; paler underparts.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Kevin Zimmer


Graytail,_Equatorial  Xenerpestes singularis Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Equatorial Graytail has gray upperparts; pale underparts with streaking; white supercilium; orange fore-crown.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Jorge_Cueva - Ecuador  3) Tony_Castro - Ecuador






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