MONARCH FLYCATCHERs

Order Passeriformes   Family Monarchidae


The Monarch Flycatchers comprise a family of passerine birds which includes boatbills, shrikebills, paradise-flycatchers, and magpie-larks. Monarchids are small insectivorous songbirds with long tails and broad bills. Their plumage ranges from somber to spectacular. They inhabit forest or woodland across sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and Australasia. Only a few species migrate. Many species decorate their cup-shaped nests with lichen. 

Other families of flycatchers: Muscicapidae, Tyrannidae.  Swallows (Hirundinidae) and Swifts (Apodidae) also catch insects in the air.


Genus Arses

Monarch, Pied  Arses kaupFound: Australia
Image by:  1) David Cook - QLD, Australia  2) Dave Curtis - near Cairns


Monarch, Frill-necked  Arses lorealis  Found: Australia
The male Frill-necked Monarch has white white nape, shoulders,throat, breast, rump; rest black; bright blue orbital skin. Female similar, but lacks eye-ring; has white lores, brownish tinged breast.
Image by: 1) Complicado  2) Tom Tarrant


Monarch, Rufous-collared also Ochre-collared Monarch  Arses insularis  Found: New Guinea
The male Rufous-collared Monarch has mainly black upperparts; black face; bright rufous collar, upper-breast; white lower-breast, belly; blue eye-ring. Female has olive-brown upperparts; rufous chin, throat, upper-breast; white lower-breast, belly.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Katerina_Tvardikova



Genus Carterornis

Monarch, Golden  Carterornis chrysomela  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) Lip Kee - Papua, Indonesia  2) Lauren Steijn - New Ireland  3) Katerina Tvardikova


Monarch, Loetoe  Carterornis castus  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit


Monarch, White-eared  Carterornis leucotis  Found: Australia
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Tom Tarrant


Monarch, White-naped  Carterornis pileatus  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Mike Nelson



Genus Chasiempis

Elepaio, Hawaii  Chasiempis sandwichensis  Found: Big Island of Hawaii
Image by: 1) RH Porter. 2) Eike Wulfmeyer   3) Pat and Keith Taylor - Kipuka Ki, Volcano, Hawaii
1) Left: male; Right: female 2) Female


Elepaio, Kauai   Chasiempis sclateri   Found: Kauai
The Kauai Elepalo  has gray back, head; pale white supercilium; rusty breast; whitish belly.
Image by: 1) Porter  2) Caleb Slemmons


Elepaio, Oahu   Chasiempis ibidis  Found: Oahu
The Oahu Elepalo  is It is now restricted to an area of 47 square kilometers (18 sq mi) in the Koolau and Waianae ranges.
Image by: 1) Evans et. al  2) Hayataro Sakitsu



Genus Clytorhynchus

Shrikebill, Black-throated  Clytorhynchus nigrogularis  Found: Fiji, Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Thierry Nogaro


Shrikebill, Fiji  Clytorhynchus vitiensis  Found: American Samoa, Fiji, Tonga
Image by: 1) Godeffroy  2) Thierry Nogaro


Shrikebill, Rennell  Clytorhynchus hamlini  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1, 2) Tony Morris


Shrikebill, Southern  Clytorhynchus pachycephaloides  Found: Vanuatu (east of northern Australia)
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Tony Morris



Genus Eutrichomyias - 1 species

Flycatcher, Cerulean Paradise-   Eutrichomyias rowleyi   Found: Sangihe, off North Sulawesi in Indonesia
The Cerulean Paradise-Flycatcher has cerulean-blue plumage; bare white eye-ring; dark brown eyes; bluish-black bill; pale blue-gray underparts.
Image by: 1) Wesley Pangimangen



Genus Grallina

Magpie-lark  Grallina cyanoleuca Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Magpie-lark has blach and white plumage. Mainly black upperparts; black breast; white belly. Male has black throat; female has white throat.
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) Wayne Butterworth  3, 4, 5) Dick Daniels - Australia  6) David Cook - Wamboin, NSW, Australia.
1) Female 2 - 5) Male


Torrent-lark   Grallina bruijni  Found: New Guinea
The Torrent-lark has blach and white plumage. Male has mainly black head; white ear-coverts down to side of neck; black throat, breast, upper-belly; white lower belly. Female similar to male, but white band extends from base of bill, thourgh eye, to base of neck.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Katerina_Tvardikova
2) Female 3) Male



Genus Hypothymis

Monarch, Black-naped  Hypothymis azurea  Found: Asia
Image by:  1, 4) Hiyashi Haka  2, 3) Alnus - Taiwan


Monarch, Celestial Hypothymis coelestis  Found: Philippines
Image by: 1) Josleph Smit  2) Bram Demeulemeester  3) Mark Sutton


Monarch, Pale-blue  Hypothymis puella  Found: east Indonesia
The Pale-blue Monarch is a forest species which builds a small cup nest. It has short legs and sits very upright whilst perched prominently, like a shrike.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Lip Kee
2) Female


Monarch, Short-crested  Hypothymis helenae  Found: Philippines
Image by: 1) Marcel Holyoak  2) Yann Muzika



Genus Mayrornis
The name Mayrornis is a compound word. The first part, Mayr, commemorates Ernst Walter Mayr, a German ornithologist and systematist. The second part, ornis, is the Greek word meaning "bird"

Monarch, Ogea also Versicolored Monarch  Mayrornis versicolor  Found: Fiji
Image by: 1) Mary Bomford


Monarch, Slaty  Mayrornis lessoni  Found: Fiji
Image by: 1) Tom Tarrant


Monarch, Vanikoro  Mayrornis schistaceus  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) hbw.com



Genus Metabolus - 1 species

Monarch, Truk also Chuuk Monarck  Metabolus rugensis  Found: island of Chuuk in Micronesia
The male Truk Monarch has mainly whitish plumage; black face, throat. Female has black plumage.
Image by: 1, 2) Nigel Voaden
1) Female 2) Male



Genus Monarcha

Monarch, Black-faced  Monarcha melanopsis  Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Black-faced Monarch pale gray upperparts, upper-breast; black forehead, lores; rufous lower-breast, belly.
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  3) Aviceda - Armstrong Creek, Queensland  2) David Cook - Australia  4) Brett Donald


Monarch, Black-winged  Monarcha frater  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) hbw.com


Monarch, Bougainville  Monarcha erythrostictus  Found: Solomon Islands
The nale Bougainville Monarch has bluish-black upperparts, breast; yellowish-white crescent in front of eye; chestnut belly. Female as male except spot in front of eye  rufous.
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) hbw.com


Monarch, Chestnut-bellied  Monarcha castaneiventris  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) John Gerrard Keulemans 3) Tony Morris


Monarch, Island  Monarcha cinerascens  Found: New Guinea and vicinity
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) Nicolas LeJeune  3) Tom


Monarch, Tinian  Monarcha takatsukasae  Found: northwestern Pacific near Guam
The Tinian Monarch is found in Northern Mariana Islands, and found only on the island of Tinian.
Image by: 1) Devon Pike


Monarch, White-capped  Monarcha richardsii  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Jun Maisui


Monarch, Yap  Monarcha godeffroyi  Found: Micronesia
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit



Genus  Myiagra
Flycatchers in the genus Myiagra are small birds. They have broad flattened bills adapted to catching insects. The bill is usually black. The insides of their mouths are bright orange.. They are sexually dichromatic, to a greater or lesser degree. Males tend to have dark upperparts and pale bellies. The females follow a similar pattern to males but have lighter, more washed out colours. They are found in Australasia

Flycatcher, Biak (Black)  Myiagra atra  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) Jon Hornbuckle


Flycatcher, Blue-crested also   Azure-crested Flycatcher   Myiagra azureocapilla  Found: Fiji
The male Blue-creasted Flycatcher has dark blue upperparts; light blue crown; white underparts. Female has brown upperparts with grayish tinged-cheeks; bluish-tinged crown.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Tom Tarrant
1) Male - top; female - bottom 2) Male


Flycatcher, Broad-billed  Myiagra ruficollis  Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Broad-billed Flycatcher has dark blue upperparts, head; blackish tail; orange-buff throat, upper-breast; whitish lowr-breast, belly; white eye-ring, wider on bottom. Female similar to male but paler.
Image by: 1, 2) Katerina_Tvardikova  3) sunphlo


Flycatcher, Dull  also Velvet Flycatcher  Myiagra hebetior  Found: Bismarck Archipelago (northeast of New Guinea)
The male Dull Flycatcher has black plumage; velvet black head.
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) hbw.com


Flycatcher,  Leaden    Myiagra rubecula   Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Leaden Flycatcher has dark blue-gray upperparts, head; broad blue bill with black tip. Female has red-orange throat, upper-breast. Juvenile has mottled brown breast..
Image by:  1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2, 5) David Cook 3) Arthur Chapman 4) Oystercatcher  
2) Juvenile  3) Female  3, 4) Male


Flycatcher, Makira  Myiagra cervinicauda  Found: Makria (Solomon Islands)
Image by: 1) Josep Del Hoyo
1) Male


Flycatcher, Melanesian  Myiagra caledonica  Found: Solomon Islands and vicinity
Image by: 1) Mark Maddock  2) Frederic Desmoulins
1) Female  2) Male


Flycatcher, Moluccan  Myiagra galeata  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Graham Ekins


Flycatcher, Oceanic  Myiagra oceanica  Found: Truk (west Caroline Islands of Micronesia)
Image by: 1) Tony Morris


Flycatcher, Palau  Myiagra erythrops  Found: Palau  (west Caroline Islands of Micronesia)
Image by: 1) Devon Pike


Flycatcher, Paperbark  Myiagra nana  Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Paperbark Flycatcher has blackish upperparts; white underparts.
Similar to: Restless Flycatcher.  Paperbark Flycatcher is noticably smaller than Restless Flycatcher. Their ranges do not overlap.
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2, 3) GDW.45


Flycatcher, Pohnpei  Myiagra pluto  Found: east Caroline Islands of Micronesia
Image by: 1) stamp


Flycatcher, Restless  Myiagra inquieta  Found: Australia
The Restless Flycatcher has blackish upperparts; white underparts. It builds a cup-shaped nest from shredded bark and grasses, matted and bound with spider-webbing. Linings used are soft bark, grasses, hair or feathers. It is often decorated with lichen, strips of bark or spiders' egg sacs. The nest site is in the fork of a well-foliaged tree mostly near or overhanging water,
Similar to: Paperbark Flycatcher.  Paperbark Flycatcher is noticably smaller than Restless Flycatcher. Their ranges do not overlap.
Image by: 1) Tom Tarrant  2, 3) fir2000


Flycatcher, Samoan  Myiagra albiventris  Found: Samoa
Image by: 1) Hartlaub Finsch  2) Ryan Francis


Flycatcher, Satin  Myiagra cyanoleuca  Found: Australia, New Guinea
The Satin Flycatcher has blue-black upperparts; white belly. Male has blue-black hear, upper-breast; female has orange-red throat, upper-breast.
Image by: 1 ) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) Geoff Whalan  3) Tom Tarrant


Flycatcher, Shining  Myiagra alecto  Found: Australia, New Guinea
The male Shining Flycatcher has blue-black plumage. Female has rufous-tinged brown upperparts; black head; white underparts.
Image by: 1, 2, 4) Katerina_Tvardikova 3) Lip Kee  5) Greg Miles



Flycatcher, Steel-blue  Myiagra ferrocyanea  Found: New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) Josep Del Hoyo
2) Male


Flycatcher, Vanikoro  Myiagra vanikorensis  Found: Fiji and vicinity
The Vanikoro Flycatcher has glossy black upperpart; rufous underparts; slightly hooked black bill; black legs. Male has black throat; female has white chin, rufous throat.
Image by: 1, 2) Tom Tarrant



Genus Neolalage - 1 species

Monarch, Buff-bellied  Neolalage banksiana  Found: Vanuatu
Image by: 1) Andrew Skeoch



Genus Pomarea
This genus is restricted to Polynesia. They are highly threatened due to predation by the introduced black rat.

Monarch, Iphis  Pomarea iphis  Found: French Polynesia
Image by: 1) Philippe Ruist  2) Jean-Paul Mutz
1) Juvenile


Monarch, Marquesas  Pomarea mendozae  Found: French Polynesia
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Eric Oliver


Monarch, Rarotonga  Pomarea dimidiata  Found: Cook Islands
The Rarotonga Monarch plumage changes from orange to orange-gray to gray as it reaches maturity at 4 years.
Image by: 1) Anne van der Wal  2, 3) Linrod
2) Yearling 3) Mature adult


Monarch, Tahiti  Pomarea nigra  Found: Tahiti
The Tahiti Monarch has black plumage; pale blue bill. There are fewer than 50 remaining.
Image by: 1) Francois Sanz



Genus Symposiachrus
This genus is sometimes lumped together in the genus Monarcha.Most have black and white plumage.

Monarch, Biak  Symposiachrus brehmii  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1, 2) Lars Peterrson
1) Female 2) Male


Monarch, Black  Symposiachrus axillaris  Found: New Guinea
The male Black Monach has black plumage; black legs. Female similar but grayish-black.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Katerina Tvardikova


Monarch, Black-and-white  also  Solomon Monarch  Symposiachrus barbatus  Found: New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) John Gould


Monarch, Black-backed  also  Kofiau Monarch  Symposiachrus julianae  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Iwein Mauro


Monarch, Black-chinned  Symposiachrus boanensis  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Kees Moeliker - Boano


Monarch, Black-tailed  Symposiachrus verticalis  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) Joseph Smit


Monarch, Black-tipped  Symposiachrus loricatus  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Joseph Wolf  2) Pierre Fabre  3) Mehd Halaouate
1) Adult - left; Juvenile - right.


Monarch, Flores  Symposiachrus sacerdotum  Found: island of Flores (Indonesia)
Image by: 1) Dubi Sharpiro


Monarch, Hooded  Symposiachrus manadensis  Found: New Guinea
The Hooded Monarch has glossy-black upperparts, upper-breast; whitish lower-breast, belly. pale grayish-blue bill with black tip.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Katerina Tvardikova


Monarch, Kulambangra  Symposiachrus browni  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Jun Matsui


Monarch, Manus  Symposiachrus infelix  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) Joseph Smit  3) Geoff Jones


Monarch, Rufous  Symposiachrus rubiensis  Found: New Guinea
The Rufous Monarch has mainly rufous plumage. Male has gray crown; black lower forehead. Female generally browner than female, especially on head.
Image by: 1, 2) Katerina Tvardikova


Monarch, Spectacled  Symposiachrus trivirgatu also Monarcha trivirgatu  Found: Australia, New Guines
The Spectacled Monarch has bluish-gray upperparts; black face, throat; white on outer edge of tail; orange-rufous breast; whitish belly. Female duller than males.
Image by: 1) Katerina Tvardikova  2) JJ Harrison    3, 4, 5) David Cook - Lake Eacham, QLD, Australia


Monarch, Spot-winged  Symposiachrus guttula  Found: New Guinea
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Katerina_Tvardikova


Monarch, White-breasted    also  Mussau Monarch  Symposiachrus menckei  Found: Massua (northeast of New Guinea)
Image by: 1) Katerina_Tvardikova  2) Jon Hornbuckle


Monarch, White-collared  Symposiachrus vidua  Found: Solomon Islands
Image by: 1) Josep del Hoyo


Monarch, White-tailed  Symposiachrus leucurus  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) James Eaton


Monarch, White-tipped  Symposiachrus everetti  Found: Indonesia
Image by: 1) Bob Hutchinson


Genus Terpsiphone

Flycatcher, African Paradise-  Terpsiphone viridis  Found: Africa
The male African Paradise-Flycatcher has chesnut wings, tail; black head, underparts; white wing-bar; very long tail streamers. Female has browner tint to tail; lacks tail streamers.
Image by: 1) Hannah Rooke - Namibia  2) Sumeet Moghe  - Masai Mara  3) Joseph Mochoge - Gilgil, Kenya    4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - Keekorok Lodge in the Masai Mara     7, 8) Arno Meintjes 
1, 2) Female rufous morph  3) Male  4 - 6) Male rufous morph


Flycatcher, Asian Paradise-  Terpsiphone paradisi  Found: Asia
Image by:  1) J M Garg - Andhra Pradesh, India  2) Steve Garvie - near Amaya Lake, Dambulla, Sri Lanka    3) Thimindu Goonatillake  4) Hiyashi Haka


Flycatcher, Bates's Paradise-  Terpsiphone batesi  Found: central Africa
The Bates's Paradise-Flycatcher has rufous upperparts; blue-gray head, underparts.
Similar to: Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher. Bate's Paradise-Flycatcher was consider a subspecies of Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher. Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher has a darked head with creast and male always has elongated central tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Bernard Guevorts


Flycatcher, Black-headed Paradise-  also  Red-bellied Paradise-Flycatcher  Terpsiphone rufiventer Found; Africa
The male Black-headed Paradise-Flycatcher has mainly chestnut plumage; black head; long tail streamers. Female is duller and lacks tail streamers.
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - specimen in Nairobi National Museum, Kenya  2) Gip Gipukan  3) Steve Garvie - Gambia


Flycatcher, Blue Paradise- Terpsiphone cyanescens   Found: Philippines
Image by: 1) Rackk67  2) Francesco Veronesi  3) Kieron Tan


Flycatcher, Japanese Paradise-  Terpsiphone atrocaudata  Found: Asia
Image by: 1) Characters  2) Hiyashi Haka 3) Pokopong
1) Female 2, 3) Male


Flycatcher, Madagascar  Paradise-  Terpsiphone mutata  Found: in Comoros, Madagascar, and Mayotte
The Madagascar Paradise-Flycather has a black head; blue eye-ring.
Image by: 1, 2,) Dick Daniels - Kirindy Forest, Madagascar  3, 4) Dick - Arboretum near Tulear, Madagascar.
3) Female  4) Male


Flycatcher, Mascarene Paradise-  Terpsiphone bourbonnensis  Found: Mauritius and Réunion (east of Madagascar)
Image by: 1, 2) Dunog  3, 4) Jerry Oldenettel - Reunion


Flycatcher, Rufous-vented Paradise-  Terpsiphone atrocaudata  Found: Africa
Similar to: Bates's Paradise-Flycatcher. Bate's Paradise-Flycatcher was consider a subspecies of Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher. Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher has a darked head with creast and male always has elongated central tail feathers.
Image by: 1) Marcel Holyoak


Flycatcher, Sao Tome Paradise-  Terpsiphone atrochalybeia  Found: Sao Tome and Principe (off west coast central Africa)
Image by: 1, 2) Muchaxo


Flycatcher, Seychelles Paradise-  Terpsiphone corvina  Found: Seychelles (northeast of Madagascar)
The male Seychelles Paradise-Flycatcher has glossy black plumage with a deep blue sheen; long black central tail feathers. Female reddish-brown upperparts; creamy-white underparts. Blue orbital skin.
Image by: 1, 2) Adrian Scottow  3) Adrien
1) Juvenile male  2) Female 3) Male



Genus Trochocercus
African flycatchers. The name Trochocercus is a combination of the Greek words trokhos meaning "circular" or "round" and kerkos, meaning "tail".

Flycatcher, Blue-headed Crested-  Trochocercus nitens  Found: Africa
Image by: 1, 2) University of Oslo


Flycatcher, African Crested-  also  Blue-mantled Crested-Flycatcher  Trochocercus cyanomelas  Found: Africa
The male African Crested Flycatcher has dark blue mantle, head, breast; white belly, wing-patch, eye-ring. Female has gray upperparts, off-white underparts; white eye-ring, wing-bars.
Image by: 1) Alan Manson - South Africa  2) Dick Daniels - specimen in Nairobi National Museum, Kenya


BOATBILLS

Order Passeriformes   Family Machaerirhynchidae


Genus Machaerirhynchus
The boatbills have a large flattened bill with "keel" on upper manbible shaped like an upturned rowing boat.

Boatbill, Black-breasted  Machaerirhynchus nigripectus  Found: New Guinea
The Black-breasted Boatbill has black upperparts, lores; yellow face, underparts; black breast patch.
Image by: 1, 2) Joseph Smit  3) Jerry Oldenettel


Boatbill, Yellow-breasted   Found: Australia
The male Yellow-breasted Boatbill has dark olive upperparts; yellow supercilium; white wing-bars; white chin, throat; rich yellow underparts; black bill. Female similar to male but duller; black replace by dull olive-green.
Image by: 1) David Cook  2) Greg Miles




FAIRY FLYCATCHERs

Order Passeriformes   Family Stenostiridae

The members of this relatively new family are found in southeast Asia and Africa. The Fairy Flycatchers used to be in the Old Worrld Flycather family Muscicapidae and also in the Monarchidae family.


Genus Chelidorhynx - 1 species

Fantail,_Yellow-bellied_Fairy-  also  Yellow-bellied Fantail  Chelidorhynx hypoxantha   Found: China, India, southeast Asia
The Yellow-bellied Fairy-Fantail has gray upperparts;dark mask;  yellow forehead, underparts;
Image by: 1) Nabarunsadhya  2) Rafael Vila



Genus Culicicapa
The canary-flycatchers have a fine-tipped bill which becomes broad and flat at the base. They are found in southeast Asia

Flycatcher,_Citrine_Canary-  Culicicapa helianthea  Found:
Image by: 1) Ariefrahman - North Sulawesi  2) unknown  3) Francesco_Veronesi


Flycatcher,_Gray-headed_Canary-  Culicicapa ceylonensis  Found: China, Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia
Image by: 1) JJ_Harrison - Thailand  2, 3) Antony_Grossy - India



Genus Elminia

Flycatcher, African Blue-  Elminia longicauda  Found: Africa
Image by: 1) Steve Garvie - Kalsomega, Kenya  2) Carol Foil - Tarime, Mara, Tanzania


Flycatcher,_Dusky_Crested-  Elminia nigromitrata  Found: Africa
Image by: 1) Haller1962  2) Nik_Borrow - Kenya


Flycatcher,_White-bellied_Crested-  Elminia albiventris  Found: Africa
Image by: 1) Haller1962  2) C_Artuso


Flycatcher,_White-tailed_Blue-  Elminia albicauda  Found: Africa
Image by: 1, 2) Tom_Tarrant - Uganda  3) Francesco_Veronesi


Flycatcher,_White-tailed_Crested-  Elminia albonotata  Found: Africa
The White-Tailed Crested-Flycatcher has mainly gray upperparts; black crown, wings; white belly rump, under-tail; black bill.
Image by: 1) Haller1962   2, 3) Louis_Andre_Hansen



Genus Stenostira - 1 species

Flycatcher,_Fairy  Stenostira scita   Found; South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia
The Fairy Flycatcher has gray upperparts; black mask; white supercilium; white throat; pale gray breast; white belly with pinkish-gray wash to center.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi - South Africa  2) Alan_Manson





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