ICTERIDAE of The World

The Icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colorful birds, restricted to the New World. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. The majority of icterid species live in the tropics, although there are a number of temperate forms. They inhabit a range of habitats, including scrub, swamp, forest, and savannah. Temperate species are migratory. Icterids are variable in size, and often display considerable sexual dimorphism. Their size varies 15-52 cm. One unusual adaptation shared is they can open their bills strongly rather than passively, allowing them to force open gaps to obtain otherwise hidden food. Some use their gaping motion to open the skins of fruit to obtain the soft insides, and have long bills adapted to the process. Others such as cowbirds have shorter stubbier bills for crushing seeds. Orioles will drink nectar. The nesting habits of these birds are similarly variable. [abstracted from Wikipedia]



Blackbirds

Order Passeriformes    Family Icteridae


These blackbirds are not to be confused with the European blackbird Turdus merula which is called Blackbird. The New World blackbirds have a a diet of mainly seeds and insects, with seeds usually being predominant. The males are mostly dark with often some colorful patches. The females are drab and some resemble New World sparrows.


Genus Agelaius

Blackbird, Red-winged Agelaius phoeniceus   Found: North America, Central America
The male Red-winged Blackbird has all black plumage except for a mainly red shoulder patch. At rest, a yellow border to the red shoulder patch is visible. Female has dark brown upperparts; dark striped underparts.
Similar to: Pine Siskin. Pine Siskin has striped underparts; female Red-winged Blackbird has blurry underparts.
Similar to: Tricolored Blackbird. Tricolored Blackbird is restricted to near the west coastal areas of North America. Male Tricolored's lower shoulder patch is bright white while the male Red-wing's is yellowish. Female Red-winged Blackbird is reddish brownish; female Tricolored Blackbird tends more to gray.
Image by:  1, 6) Dick Daniels - North Carolina   2, 3) Dick Daniels - Ontario  4) Mdf    5) Dick - Wyoming   7) Alan D. Wilson   8) Ted Grussing - Arizona
1) Juvenile male  2, 3, 4, 5) Female  6, 7, 8) Male


Blackbird, Tricolored  Agelaius tricolor   Found: North America (Oregon to northern Mexico)
The male Tricolored-winged Blackbird has all black plumage except for a mainly red shoulder patch. At rest, a white border to the red shoulder patch is visible. Female has dark gray upperparts; dark striped underparts.
Similar to: Red-winged Blackbird. Tricolored Blackbird is restricted to near the west coastal areas of North America. Male Tricolored's lower shoulder patch is bright white while the male Red-wing's is yellowish. Female Red-winged Blackbird is reddish brownish; female Tricolored Blackbird tends more to gray.
Image by: 1) Alan Vernon - Californai  2) Tsuru8  2) Marcel Holyoak - California    3, 4) Maggie Smith - California  5) Charlie Westerinen - Soldier Hollow, Utah, USA
1) Female  2 - 6) Male



Blackbird, Yellow-shouldered Agelaius xanthomus   Endemic to Puerto Rico.
The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird is closely related to the red-winged blackbird.
Image by: 1,  2) Mike Morel / USFWS - Puerto Rico



Genus  Agelasticus
These species are found in South America.

Blackbird, Pale-eyed  Agelasticus xanthophthalmus  Found: South America 
The Pale-eyed Blackbird has black plumage; pale eye. It is found in Ecuador and Peru.
Image by: Claudio Timm


Blackbird, Unicolored Agelasticus cyanopus  Found: South America 
The male Unicolored Blackbird has uniformly black plumage. Female has brown upperparts; dirty yellow underparts. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay.
Image by: 1) John Gerard Keulemans  2, 3) Gustavo Durán - Argentenia 4) Lip Kee Yap - Argentenia
1) Pair  2, 3, 4) Female


Blackbird, Yellow-winged  Agelasticus thilius  Found: South America 
The male Yellow-winged Blackbird has black plumage with a yellow shoulder patch which may be hidden at rest. Female has black streaks on brown; light supercilium. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.
Image by:  1, 2, 3, 4) Claudio Timm  - Brazil    5) dFaulder - Costanera Sur Nature Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina   6) Dick Daniels - Lake Titicaca
1, 2) Female  3, 4, 5, 6) Male



Genus Amblyramphus - 1 species

Blackbird, Scarlet-headed  Amblyramphus holosericeus  Found: marshes of South Amercia
The Scarlet-headed Blackbird has mainly black plumage with reddish-orange head, nape, upper breast.
Similar to: Yellow-hooded Blackbird. Scarlet-headed Blackbird has reddish-orange head; male Yellow-hooded Blackbird has yellow head.
Image by:  1, 4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - National Aviary    2) Sandy Cole - National Aviary  3) Claudio Timm  - Brazil   7) Ken Erickson 




Genus Chrysomus

Blackbird, Chestnut-capped  Chrysomus ruficapilluFound: South America
The male Chestnut-capped Blackbird has black plumage with chestnut cap, face, throat. Female has brown upperpart; lighter brown underparts. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Similar to: Shiny Cowbird (female). The female Shiny Cowbird has a longer finer bill and a pale supercilium compared to the female Chestnut-capped Blackbird.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 7) Claudio Timm    4, 5) dFaulder - Argentina 6) Dario Sanches
1) Juvenile male 2) Female (white not usual)  4 - 7) Male



Blackbird, Yellow-hooded  Chrysomus icterocephalus  Found: South America
The male Yellow-hooded Blackbird has mainly black plumage with yellow, nape, upper breast. Female has olive-brown upperparts; olive throaat, breast; brown belly.
Similar to: Scarlet-headed Blackbird. Scarlet-headed Blackbird has reddish-orange head; male Yellow-hooded Blackbird has yellow head.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels  - National Aviary  7) Darren Bellerby - Jurong Bird Park, Singapore  8) Trisha Shears  
1 - 4) Female or juvenile male  5 - 8) Male



Genus Curaeus

Blackbird, Austral  Curaeus curaeus  Found: Argentina, Chile
Image by: Adam Paul



Genus Euphagus
This genus has two species. The adult males have mainly black plumage and a bright yellow eye; the females are dark gray-brown. They build cup nests, and the female alone incubates the eggs. They are gregarious outside the breeding season. Both species feed on seeds and insects,

Blackbird, Brewer's Euphagus cyanocephalus Found: North America
The male Brewer's Blackbird has black plumage; bright yellow eye. Female has dark gray plumage; most have dark eyes.
Similar to: Brown-headed Cowbird. Brown-headed Cowbird has larger (more stout) bill than Brewer's Blackbird. Brewster's Blackbird has lighter eyes. The male Brown-headed Cowbird is obvious for its brown head.
Similar to: Boat-tailed Grackle, Common Grackle, Great-tailed Grackle. Brewer's Blackbird has a smaller bill.
Similar to: Rusty Blackbird. Brewer's Black prefers open habitat, Rusty Black bird prefers wooded. Rusty Blackbird has bigger bill than Brewer's Blackbird. Male Brewer's are usually more glossy than male Rusty. Most female Brewer's Blackbirds have a dark eye. If a female Brewer's Blackbird does have pale eyes, they are not as bright as the pale yellow eyes of a female Rusty Blackbird.
Image by: 1) Alan D Wilson - Banff National Park, Alberta  2) Len Blumin - California  3) Alan Vernon   4) Dick Daniels- Wyoming  5, 7, 8, 9) Dick - California   6) Elaine R. Wilson -  British Columbia  
1) Juvenile  2) Female with pale eye (uncommon)  3 - 6) Females with dark eye  7, 8, 9) Male




Blackbird, Rusty Euphagus carolinus   Found: North America
The breeding male Rusty Blackbird has black plumage; pale yellow eye. Breeding female has dark gray plumage; pale yellow eyes. Nonbreeding bird has rusty-brown upperparts.
Similar to: Brewer's Blackbird.  Brewer's Black prefers open habitat, Rusty Black bird prefers wooded. Rusty Blackbird has bigger bill than Brewer's Blackbird. Male Brewer's are usually more glossy than male Rusty. Most female Brewer's Blackbirds have a dark eye. If a female Brewer's Blackbird does have pale eyes, they are not as bright as the pale yellow eyes of a female Rusty Blackbird.
Image by: 1) Mdf - Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada  2) Jeff Whitlock - Texas  3, 8) Seabrooke Leckie      4) Ed Galliard - New York  5, 6) Dick Daniels - Southport, North Carolina   7)  Stylurus - Michigan   9)   Don Faulkner - South Carolina   
1, 2) Nonbreeding female  3) Breeding female  4 - 7) Nonbreeding male   8, 9) Breeding male





Genus Gnorimopsar - 1 species

Blackbird, Chopi  Gnorimopsar chopi  Found: South America
The Chopi Blackbird has shiny black plumage; grooved lower mandible.
It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.
Image by:  1) Beatrice Murch - Iguazu National Park, Argentina  2)  Claudio Timm - Brazil



Genus Xanthocephalus - 1 species

Blackbird, Yellow-headed Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus   Found: southwest Canada, west and central USA, Mexico
The male Yellow-headed Blackbird has mainly black plumage; yellow head, breast. Female has mainly brown plumage; dull yellow throat, breast.
Image by:   1) Michelle Lamberson - British Columbia   2) Alan D. Wilson  - Oregon  3) Phil Norton, USFWS  4) Dave Minke, USFWS  5) Eugene Beckes
1, 2, 3) Female  4, 5) Male






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