New World FLYCATCHERs

Order Passeriformes    Family Tyrannidae

The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) occur throughout North and South America. They are now considered the largest family of birds on Earth, with around 400 species. As could be expected from a family this large, the members vary greatly in habitat, shape, patterns and colors. Some Tyrant flycatchers superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers. Most, but not all, are rather plain, and many have erectile crests. Most are insectivorous, but some will eat fruit or small vertebrates.

Other families of flycatchers: Monarchidae, Muscicapidae.  Swallows (Hirundinidae) and Swifts (Apodidae) also catch insects in the air.


Genus Anairetes
The tit-tyrants are fairly small birds that get their common name from the tit family, due to their energetic tit-like dispositions and appearance, primarily in their crests. They live in temperate or arid scrub habitats and are mainly found in the Andes mountains.

Tyrant, Tufted Tit-  Anairetes parulus  Found: South America
The Tufted Tit-Tyrant  has a conspicuous crest; grayish-brown back; black head with traces of white; white throat and breast covered with black streaks.
Image by dFaulder - Puerto Aisen, Chile


Tyrant, Unstreaked_Tit-  Anairetes agraphia  Found: Peru
The Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant has brown upperparts; black crest which appears pushed back to the rear; black eye-line; lightly streaked gray face and throat; pale yellow belly.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony



Genus Arundinicola - 1 species

Tyrant, White-headed Marsh-  Arundinicola leucocephala  Found: South America
The male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant has a black body; white head; yellowish lower mandible. Female has brown upperparts; black tail; dull white underparts, sides of head, fore-crown.
Similar to: Masked Water-Tyrant. Masked Water-Tyrant has black mask; female White-headed Marsh-Tyrant does not.
Image by: 1, 3) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Dominic Sherony - Trinidad and Tobago 4) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina
1) Female  2 - 4) Male



Genus Attila
The Attila are tropical birds with large heads and hooked bills. Their aggressive nature leads to their Attila (the Hun) name.

Attila, Gray-hooded Attila rufus  Found: Brazil
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches 



Genus Camptostoma
The two beardless-tyrannulet species are active birds, feeding in a vireo or warbler-like fashion on insects, spiders and berries. They build domed nests with side entrances.

Tyrannulet, Northern Beardless-   Camptostoma imberbe  Found: Arizona, Texas, Mexico, Central America
The Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet has gray-green upperparts becoming paler on the  rump; dark brown head with erectile crest; pale supercilium; brown wings with two pale wing-bars; brown tail; gray throat;
Similar to: Juvenile Verdin.
Similar to: Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet. The Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet is brighter, especially its wing-bars.
Image by: 1) Seabamirum - Arizona  2) Marcel Holyoak - Arizona  3) Amy McAndrews - Mexico



Genus Colonia - 1 species

Tyrant, Long-tailed  Colonia colonus  Found: South America
The Long-tailed Tyrant has mainly black plumage; gray crown; white ring below the crown. The breeding male has long elongated central tail feather; hence the name.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil
1, 2) Female  3, 4) Male



Genus Conopias

Flycatcher, Three-striped  Conopias trivirgatus  Found: South America
Photos needed!


Genus Contopus
The pewees are generally grayish birds with wing-bars. They live in wooded areas.

Flycatcher, Olive-sided Contopus cooperi Found: The Americas
The Olive-sided Flycatcher has dark olive upperparts; light underparts; large dark bill; short tail.
Similar to: Greater Pewee. Greater Pewee has crest; Olive-sided Flycatcher does not. Great Pewee lower mandible is orange; Olive-sided Flycatcher has dark bill.
Image by: 1) Maggie Smith - California  2) Dominic Sherony  3) Len Blumin - California   4) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico


Pewee, Cuban  Contopus caribaeus  Found: Cuba, Bahamas
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Ken Schneider - Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park  4) Victoria Garcia - Cuba


Pewee, Dark Contopus lugubris  Found: Costa Rica and Panama
The Dark Pewee has sooty-gray upperparts, darkest on the crested crown; blackish wings and tail; faint wing-bar; pale gray throat; light olive-gray underparts becoming yellowish on the lower belly.
Similar to: Western Wood-Pewee.  Western Wood-Pewee has obvious wing-bars; Dark Pewee has darker underparts.
Image by: Dominic Sherony


Pewee, Eastern Wood- Contopus virens   Found:North America, South America
The Eastern Wood-Pewee has olive-gray upperparts; washed olive on the breast; 2 white wing-bars; dark upper-tail; yellowish under-tail; dark upper mandible; yellowish lower mandible.
Similar to: Eastern Phoebe. Eastern Wood-Pewee has more distinct wing-bars than Eastern Phoebe. Eastern Phoebe bobs its tail frequently.
Similar to: Greater Pewee. Greater Pewee has a crest, indistinct wingbars; Eastern Wood-Pewees does have a crest and has distinct wingbars.
Similar to: Tropical Pewee. Tropical Pewee usually has wite lores (photo 2); Eastern Wood-Pewee does not.
Similar to: Western Wood-Pewee. Difficult to distinguish by appearance, but there is little overlap of range. Voice is an identifiable feature.
Image by: 1) Kelly Azar   2) Sid Phillips - Tennessee   3) Jim Conrad  4) Michael Hodge - Tennessee 5) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico



Pewee, Greater  Contopus pertinax   Found: southwest North America, Central America
The Great Pewee is slightly longer than the Olive-sided Pewee; hence the name. It has dull gray-brown plumage; distinct crest; indistinct wing-bars; long bill; orange lower mandible.
Similar to: Eastern Wood-Pewee, Western Wood-Pewee. Greater Pewee has a crest, indistinct wingbars; Eastern and Western Wood-Pewees do not have a crest and have distinct wingbars.
Similar to: Olive-sided Flycatcher. Greater Pewee has crest; Olive-sided Flycatcher does not. Great Pewee lower mandible is orange; Olive-sided Flycatcher has dark bill.
Image by: 1) Amy McAndrews - Mexico   2) Jerry Oldenettel - Texas


Pewee, Ochraceous  Contopus ochraceus  Found: Costa Rica, Panama
The Ochraceous Pewee has ochre breast, wing-bars; crest.
Similar to: Tufted Flycatcher. Ochraceous Pewee is much larger; has ochre breast. Tufted Flycatcher has larger crest; tawny breast.
Image by: John Gerrard Keulemans


Pewee, Tropical Contopus cinereus Found: southern Mexico to South America 
The Tropical Pewee has gray or dark brown upperparts; blackish crown; 2 white wing-bars; white lores; whitish throat and center of breast; gray-brown flanks; pale yellow belly.
Similar to: Eastern Wood-Pewee. Tropical Pewee usually has wite lores (photo 2); Eastern Wood-Pewee does not.
Image by: 1) AmyMcAndrews 2) Erick Houk


Pewee, Western Wood- Contopus sordidulus Found: North America, South America
The Western Wood-Pewee has gray-olive upperparts; light underparts washed with olive on the breast; 2 white wing-bars; dark bill with yellow at the base of the lower mandible.
Similar to: Dark-Pewee.  Western Wood-Pewee has obvious wing-bars; Dark Pewee has darker underparts.
Similar to: Greater Pewee. Greater Pewee has a crest, indistinct wingbars; Western Wood-Pewees does have a crest and has distinct wingbars.
Similar to: Eastern Wood-Pewee. Difficult to distinguish by appearance, but there is little overlap of range. Voice is an identifiable feature.
Image by: 1) Alan D Wilson  2) Arthur Chapman near Brooks, Alberta  3, 4) J N Stuart - New Mexico  5) Bill Bouton - California




Genus Corythopis

Antpipit, Southern  Corythopis delalandi  Found: South America
The Southern Antpit has olive upperparts; white throat; black upper breast transitions to white belly.
It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil



Genus Elaenia
Elaenia flycatchers have typically brownish, grayish or olive upperparts; off-white and/or pale yellow underparts; white or pale yellowish eye-ring; two or three wing bars. Some species show a crest; often with a semi-concealed white patch/streak.

Elaenia, Caribbean  Elaenia martinica  Found: Central America and Caribbean
The Caribbean Elaenia has olive-green upperparts; indistinct supercilium; grayish breast; yellowish-gray belly; 2 pale white wing-bars.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) New Jersy Birds


Elaenia, Highland  Elaenia obscura  Found: South America
The Highland Elaenia has brownish-olve upperparts; yellowish underparts; negligible eye-ring.
It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.
Image by: Claudio Timm


Elaenia, Lesser  Elaenia chiriquensis  Found: Central and South Amercia
The Lesser Elaenia has dull green upperparts; small white crown patch; light olive breast; off-white belly; flanks and undertail coverts often tinged with pale yellow; bold eye-rings; 2 wing-bars.
Similar to: White-crested Elaenia. Lesser Elaenia has more extensive yellow on the underparts. White-crested Elaenia has more predominent white crest and tends to be darker than Lesser Elaenia.
Similar to: Yellow-bellied Elaenia. Lesser Elaenia is slightly smaller; Yellow-bellied Elaenia has larger crest.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Panama


Elaenia, Mottle-backed  Elaenia gigas  Found: South America
The Mottle-backed Elaenia has olive upperparts, breast; yellowish belly; split crest that helps make visible white crown. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
Similar to: Yellow-bellied Elaenia. Mottle-backed Elaenia has olive breast; Yellow-bellied Elaenia has gray breast.
Photograhed by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Ecuador


Elaenia, Mountain   Elaenia frantzii  Found: Cental and South America
The Mountain Elaenia has dull olive upperparts; dusky wings with 2 off-white wing-bars; faint eye-ring; yellowish-gray throat, breast; more yellowish belly.
Image by: 1, 3) Dave Curtis - Columbia  2) Dick Daniels - Boquette, Panama


Elaenia, Olivaceous Elaenia  mesoleuca  Found: southern South Amercia
The Olivaceous Elaenia has olivaceous upperparts; gray underparts; olive flanks; 2 off-white wing-bars; brown tail.
It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Image by:  1, 2) Cláudio Timm


Elaenia, Small-billed  Elaenia parvirostris  Found: South America
The Small-billed Elaenia has relatively prominent white eye-rings; white crown stripe that is often hidden; paler underparts than most elaenias; 3 wing-bars.
Similar to: White-crested Elaenia. The Small-billed Elaenia has a shorter bill than the White-crested Elaenia and lacks a white crest. The White-crested Elaenia has darker underparts.
Image by: 1, 2) Cláudio Timm in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


Elaenia, White-crested  Elaenia albiceps   Found: South America
The White-crested Elaenia has dull green upperparts; often prominent white crown patch; olive breast; off-white belly; flanks and undertail coverts often tinged with pale yellow; pale eye-rings; 2 wing-bars.
Similar to: Lesser Elaenia. Lesser Elaenia has more extensive yellow on the underparts. White-crested Elaenia has more predominent white crest and tends to be darker than Lesser Elaenia.
Similar to: Small-billed Elaenia. The Small-billed Elaenia has a shorter bill than the White-crested Elaenia and lacks a white crest. The White-crested Elaenia has darker underparts.
Image by: 1) Jorge Cardena - Chile  2) Charlie Westerinen - Tierra del Fuego  3) Jerry Oldenettel - Ecuador


Elaenia,_Yellow-bellied  Elaenia flavogaster  Found: Central and South America
Yellow-bellied Elaenia has gray breast; yellow tinged belly; 2 white wing-bars; white eye-rings; pale lores; large bushy crest.
Similar to: Lesser Elaenia. Lesser Elaenia is slightly smaller; Yellow-bellied Elaenia has larger crest.
Similar to: Mottle-backed Elaenia. Mottle-backed Elaenia has olive breast; Yellow-bellied Elaenia has gray breast.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches 



Genus Empidonax
The various species of this genus are quite similar in appearance. Another characteristic they share is rapid flicking of their tails and wings. During the nesting season they may be distinguished by range, habitat, and call. See Sibley for calls of North American birds.

Flycatcher, Acadian Empidonax virescens  Found: The Americas
The Acadian Flycatcer has olive upperparts with darker wings and tail; whitish underparts with the breast washed with olive; whte eye-ring; 2 white wing-bars; dark upper bill, yellowish lower bill. The song is an explosive peet-sa. The call is a soft peet.
Similar to: Alder Flycatcher, Willow Flycatcher.  Acadian Flycatcher is greener and larger.
Image by: 1) Dan Shustack - Ohio fledgling  2, 3, Kelly Azar - Deleware   4)  Joby Joseph - Maryland  5) Dominic Sherony  6) Trolley



Flycatcher, Alder  Empidonax alnorum  Found: The Americas
The Alder Flycatcerh Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts, browner on wings and tail; whitish underparts with the breast washed with olive-gray; white eye-ring; 2 white wing-bars; gray upper bill; orangish lower bill. The song is a wheezed wee-bee. The call is a quick preet.
Similar to: Acadian Flycatcher.  Acadian Flycatcher is greener and larger.
Similar to: Willow Flycatcher.  Alder Flycatcher and Willow Flycatcher are very similar; best identified by voice.
Image by:  1, 4) Cephas - Quebec  2) Merv Cormier   3) Jerry Oldenettel - Wisconsin  5) Caleb Siemmons
1) Juvenile



Flycatcher, Buff-breasted   Empidonax fulvifrons  Found: southwest North America and Central America
The Buff-breasted Flycatcher has olive-gray upperparts with darker wings and tail; conspicuous white eye-rings; 2 white wing-bars; distinctive orange-buff breast. It is the smallest Empidonax flycatcher.The song is an alternating versed PIdew, piDEW. The call is a loud dry pit.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2) Pablo Leautaud


Flycatcher, Cordilleran  Empidonax occidentalis  Found: North America
The Cordilleran Flycatcher has olive-gray upperparts with darker wings and tail; tear-dropped shape white eye-ring; 2 white wing-bars; yellowish underparts.
Similar to: Pacific-slope Flycatcher. These 2 species are virtually identical in appearance. Cordilleran Flycacher breeds in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific-slope breeds nearer to the Pacific coast. Their calls are different.
Image by: 1) Jerry Friedman - New Mexico  2, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico


Flycatcher, Dusky also American Dusky Flycatcher  Empidonax oberholseri  Found: western North America
The Dusky Flycatcher has olive-gray upperparts with darker wings and tail; whitish underparts with the breast washed with olive-gray ; bold medium-with eye-ring; mainly dark bill.
Similar to: Gray Flycatcher, Hammond's Flycatcher. Very similar in appearance. Bill size from smaller to larger: Hammond's Flycatcher, Dusky Flycatcher, Gray Flycatcher. Dusky usually found in low brush, small trees; Gray Flycatcher prefers low vegetation in arid environment; Hammond's found high in conifers.
Image by: 1) Jamie Chavez - California  2, 5) Marcel Holyoak - California   3, 4) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico



Flycatcher, Gray  also  American Gray Flycatcher  Empidonax wrightii  Found: western North America
Th Gray Flycatcher has pale gray upperparts, darker on wings and tail; whitish underparts, washed with pale yellow in gresh plumage; 2 white wing-bars; white eye-ring;
Only the male Gray Flycatcher sings. The song is a strong, two syllable note described as chuwip or wilip. A weaker, higher-pitched teeap or seep is often inserted into the song. Both sexes give a dry pit or wit call.
Similar to: Dusky Flycatcher. Hammond's Flycatcher. Very similar in appearance. Bill size from smaller to larger: Hammond's Flycatcher, Dusky Flycatcher, Gray Flycatcher. Dusky usually found in low brush, small trees; Gray Flycatcher prefers low vegetation in arid environment; Hammond's found high in conifers.
Image by: 1, 2) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico   3) mememorice - Mexico  4)  Erin and Lance Willett  5) Bryan and Jess - Washington



Flycatcher, Hammond's  Empidonax hammondii  Found: western North America
Hammond's Flycatcher song is a multi versed hoarse ssilit, greeep, silit, pweet. The call is a sharp peek.
Similar to: Dusky Flycatcher, Gray Flycatcher. Very similar in appearance. Bill size from smaller to larger: Hammond's Flycatcher, Dusky Flycatcher, Gray Flycatcher. Dusky usually found in low brush, small trees; Gray Flycatcher prefers low vegetation in arid environment; Hammond's found high in conifers.
Similar to: Least Flycatcher. Least Flycatcher is the smallest Empidonax flycatcher in North America. Least Flycatcher has bolder wing-bars than Hammond's Flycatcher. Both have bold white eye-rings.
Image by:    1) Alan Vernon - Hyder, Alaska  2) Pablo Leautaud - Mexico  3) Len Blumin - California    4)  Rick Leche  5) Bill Bouton - Californi  6) Mark Watson - New Mexico 
1) Juvenile  



Flycatcher, Least   Empidonax minimus   Found: North America and Central America
The Least Flycatcher has grayish-oliver upperparts, darker on the wings and tail; whitish underparts, breast washed with gray, sides of belly washed with yellow; white eye-rings; 2 white wing-bars. The song is a dry che-bec. The call is a sharp whit.
Similar to: Hammond's Flycatcher. Least Flycatcher is the smallest Empidonax flycatcher in North America. Least Flycatcher has bolder wing-bars than Hammond's Flycatcher. Both have bold white eye-rings.
Similar to: Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher has yellowish underparts; Least Flycatcher does not. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher's call note is transcribed as chu-wee, ascending in pitch; Least Flycatcher's is CHE-bek.
Image by: 1) Mdf  2) Dominic Sherony  3) Dale Kaskey   4) Seabamirum  5) David Mitchell



Flycatcher, Pacific-slope  Empidonax difficilis   Found: Coast regions of western North America
The Pacific-slope Flycatcher has olive-gray upperparts with darker wings and tail; tear-dropped shape white eye-ring; 2 white wing-bars; yellowish underparts.
Similar to: Cordilleran Flycatcher. These 2 species are virtually identical in appearance. Cordilleran Flycacher breeds in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific-slope breeds nearer to the Pacific coast. Their calls are different.
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - California  2) Teddy Liovel   3) Linda Tanner - California 


Flycatcher, Willow Empidonax traillii Found: North America, northwest South America
The Willow Flycatcher hase brown-olive upperparts; whitish underparts with the breast washed with olive-gray; gray upper part of bill; orangish lower part of bill. It's song is a sneezed fitz-bew. The call is a dry whit.
Similar to: Acadian Flycatcher.  Acadian Flycatcher is greener and larger.
Similar to: Alder Flycatcher.  Alder Flycatcher and Willow Flycatcher are very similar; best identified by voice.
Image by:  1, 4) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  2) Bill Bouton - California  3) Sid Phillips - Tennessee 


Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied Empidonax flaviventris   Found: east North America
The Yellow-bellied Flycatcher has greenish upperparts; yellowish underparts with a dusky wash on the breast; white or yellowish eye-ring; dark upper mandible; orange-pink lower mandible. The call is chu-wee, ascending in pitch.
Similar to: Least Flycatcher. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher has yellowish underparts; Least Flycatcher does not. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher's call note is transcribed as chu-wee, ascending in pitch; Least Flycatcher's is CHE-bek.
Similar to: Yellowish Flycatcher. Yellowish Flycatcher is the brightest yellow of the Empidonax flycatchers.
Image by: 1) Seabrooke Leckie   2,4) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  3) Seabamirum - New York  5) Cephas - Quebec 



Flycatcher, Yellowish  Empidonax flavescens  Found: Mexico to Panama
Yellowish Flycatcher has olive-green upperparts; yellowish underparts; pale-yellow asymmetical eye-ringcall; 2 yellowish wingbars.
Similar to: Yellow-green Tyrannulet. Yellow-green Tyrannulet has thin symmetrical eye-ring; Yellowish Flycatcher has broad asymmetrcial eye-ring.
Similar to: Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Yellowish Flycatcher is the brightest yellow of the Empidonax flycatchers.
Image by:  1) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica  2) Bird Brian   3) Mdf - Panama   4) Steve Ryan - Costa Rica    5) Dominic Sherony   6, 7, 8) Dick Daniels - Boquette, Panama



Genus Empidonomus - 1 species

Flycatcher, Variegated  Empidonomus varius Found: South America
The Variegated Flycatcher has dark black and brown scaled upperparts; black crown; wide white supercilium; black eye-line; light throat; whitish breast streaked with with brown; yellow belly.
Similar to: Streaked Flycatcher. Streaked Flycatcher has bolder streaks on underparts, heavier bill; Variegated Flycatcher has white bolder supercilium.
Image by:   1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Claudi Timm  3) Barloventomagico - Venezuela



Genus Fluvicola
The Water-tyrants.

Tyrant, Masked Water-  Fluvicola nengeta  Found: South America
The Masked Water-Tyrant has pale gray back; black wings, tail; white head with black eye-stripe (mask); white underparts.
Similar to: Pied Water-Tyrant. Masked Water-Tyrant has black mask; Pied Water-Tyrant has black nape.
Similar to: White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (female). Masked Water-Tyrant has black mask; female White-headed Marsh-Tyrant does not.
Image by:  1, 2, 3, 4, 5) Dario Sanches - Brazil



Tyrant, Pied Water  Fluvicola pica  Found: Panama, Trinidad, South America
The Pied Water-Tyrant has mainly white plumage; black nape, wings, tail, center of back.
Similar to: Masked Water-Tyrant. Masked Water-Tyrant has black mask; Pied Water-Tyrant has black nape.
Image by:  1) Dominic Sherony   2, 3) _barloventomagico - northeastern Venezuela



Genus Hemitriccus
The Tody-tyrants and Bamboo-tyrants.

Tyrant, Fork-tailed Tody-  Hemitriccus furcatus  Found: South America
The Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant has olive back; brown head, throat; gray breast; off-white belly.
Image by: Dario Sanches - Brazil


Tyrant, Pearly-vented Tody- Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer  Found: South America
The Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant has olive-brown upperparts; gray crown and nape; reddish-brown bill; off-white underparts with gray streaks.
Image by: 1) Dario Niz - Uruguay  2) Ron Knight - Columbia  3) Gustvo Duran - Argentina



Genus Hirundinea - 1 species

Flycatcher, Cliff  Hirundinea ferruginea   Found: South America
The Cliff Flycatcher has blackish-brown upperparts with rufous tinged wings; cinnamon underparts; white eye-arc.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil



Genus Hymenops -1 species

Tyrant, Spectacled  Hymenops perspicillatus  Found: South America
The male Spectacled Tyrant has black plumage with white primary wing feathers; ivory bill; bold yellowish eye-ring, from whence comes the name. Female has streaked brown upperparts; yellowish eye-ring; whitish supercilium; buff underparts with gray-brown streaking; rufous primaries.
Image by:  1 ) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil   2) dFaulder - Buenos Aires, Argentina  3) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina  4) Charlie Westerinen - Bueos Aires, Argentina  
1) Female  2 - 4) Male



Genus Knipolegus
Black-Tyrants.

Tyrant, Blue-billed Black-  Knipolegus cyanirostris  Found: South America
The male Blue-billed Black-Tyrant has dark blue plumage; red eye; pale blue bill; white on inner flight feathers. Female has rufous-brown upperparts; light streaked underparts; 2 white wing-bars.
Similar to: Hudson's Black-Tyrant. Male Hudson's Black-Tyrant is coal black; male Blue-billed Tyrant is blue black.
Image by: 1, 3) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 
1, 2) Female  3) Male


Tyrant, Crested Black-  Knipolegus lophotes  Found: South America
The Glossy Black-Tyrant has glossy-black plumage; black crest; white at base of flight feathers; red eyes.
Image by: 1) Tude e Joao - Brazil  2) Claudio Timm 


Tyrant, Hudson's Black-  Knipolegus hudsoni  Found: South America
The male Hudson's Black-Tyrant has glossy-black plumage; white wing stripe in flight. Female has brown upperparts; lighter brown underparts with streaks; 2 white wing-bars. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru.
Similar to: Blue-billed Black-Tyrant. Male Hudson's Black-Tyrant is coal black; male Blue-billed Black-Tyrant is blue black.
Similar to: White-winged Black-Tyrant. The male White-winged Black-Tyrant has more white on its wings than male Hudson's Black-Tyrant and it more conspicuous.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit
1) White on wing is misleading; only visible in flight.


Tyrant, White-winged Black-  Knipolegus aterrimus  Found: South America
The male White-winged Black-Tyrant has black plumage with distinctive white wings in flight. Female has brown upperparts; cinnamon-buff underparts; 2 white or buff wing-bars.
Similar to: Hudson's Black-Tyrant. The male White-winged Black-Tyrant has more white on its wings than male Hudson's Black-Tyrant and it more conspicuous.
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm   2, 3) Sascha Wenninger - Macchu Picchu, Peru
1, 2, 3) Male



Tyrant, Velvety Black-   Knipolegus nigerrimus  Found: Brazil
The Velvety Black-Tyrant has velvet-black plumage; black crest; white at base of flight feathers. Female has dark-red throat patch.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil   2) Bart van Dorp - Brazil
1) Female  2) Male



Genus Lathrotriccus
The Lathrotriccus flycatchers closely resemble the Empidonax flycatchers. They breed in tropical South America.

Flycatcher, Euler's  Lathrotriccus eulerFound: South America
The Euler's Flycatcher has brownish-olive upperparts; faint supercilium; 2 buffy wing-bars; light throat; olive-yellowish breast; yellowish belly.
Similar to: Empidonax flycatchers.
Image by:  1) Cláudio Timm



Genus Leptopogon

Flycatcher, Sepia-capped  Leptopogon amaurocephalus   Found: Central and South America
The Sepia-capped Flycatcher has olive upperparts with browner tail; brown cap; dark ear patch; 2 yellowish wing-bars; light grayish throat; olive-yellow breast; yellowish belly.
Similar to: Inca Flycatcher. Sepia-capped Flycatcher has brown cap; Inca Flycatcher has olive-gray cap.
Similar to: Slaty-capped Flycatcher. Sepia-capped Flycatcher has brown cap; Slaty-capped Flycatcher has gray cap.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Claudi Timm


Flycatcher, Slaty-capped  Leptopogon superciliaris  Found; Central and South America
Similar to: Sepia-capped Flycatcher. Sepia-capped Flycatcher has brown cap; Slaty-capped Flycatcher has gray cap.
Image by:  Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica




Genus Lessonia

Negrito, Andean  Lessonia oreas  Found: South America
The male Andean Negrito has black plumage with a yellow-brown cape. Female has dark-gray plumage with brownish cape. Found high wetlands of Peru to north Chile, northwest Argentina.
Similar to: Austral Negrito. Male Andean Negrito has yellowish tinge to its cape; male Austral Negrito has chestnut cape. Female Andean Negrito darker than female Austral Negrito. Austral Negrito found further south than Andean Negrito.
Image by: Joel Rosenthal - Peru


Negrito, Austral   also Patagonian Negrito  Lessonia rufa   Found: South America
The male Austral Negrito has black plumage with a chestnut cape. Female has brownish-gray head, back, wing coverts; dark primaries and tail; whitish-buff underparts with faint streaking.
Similar to: Andean Negrito. Male Andean Negrito has yellowish tinge to its cape; male Austral Negrito has chestnut cape. Female Andean Negrito darker than female Austral Negrito. Austral Negrito found further south than Andean Negrito.
Image by: 1, 2, 3 Claudio Timm  - Patagonia, Argentina  4) Cristiano Crolle - Las Gaviotas, Argentina



Genus Machetornis- 1 species

Tyrant, Cattle  Machetornis rixosa  Found: South America
The Cattle Tyrant has brownish upperparts; pale throat, upper breast; yellowish lower breast, belly. Found in grassy areas.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dario Sanches - Brazil   4) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina



Genus Megarhynchus
- 1 species

Flycatcher, Boat-billed  Megarhynchus pitangua  Found: Central and South America
The Boat-billed Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts with brown wings and tail; heavy black bill; black head with white wide supercilium; white throat; yellow underparts.
Similar to: Great Kiskadee, Lesser Kiskadee. The Boat-billed Flycatcher has a more massive bill than the Great Kiskadee and Lesser Kiskadee.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil 



Genus Mitrephanes

Flycatcher, Northern Tufted  also  Tufted Flycatcher  Mitrephanes phaeocercus  Found: Central and South America
The Tufted Flycatcher has olive-green upperparts, including the pointed crest; blackish tail, wings; 2 buff wing-bars, upper one being faint; brownish-yellow breast; yellow belly. Juveniles have brownish upperparts; orange wing-bars; paler underparts.
Similar to: Ochraceous Flycatcher. Ochraceous Pewee is much larger; has ochre breast. Tufted Flycatcher has larger crest; tawny breast.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2) Steve Ryan



Genus Muscigralla - 1 species

Tyrant, Short-tailed Field  Muscigralla brevicauda  Found: South America
The Short-tailed Field Tyrant has short tail; long legs; brownish-gray upperparts; yellow crown stripe, often concealed; 2 bold wing-bars; white supercilium; chestnut upper tail coverts; pale yellowish underparts. Found in Chile, Peru, Ecuador.
Image by: 1) in Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny   2) David Cook - Arbol Millenary Reserve, via Chiclayo, Peru 



Genus Muscisaxicola
Ground tyrants are ground-dwelling birds which inhabit open country in South America. They are fairly small with longish legs, a slender bill and an erect posture. The plumage is dull and mainly grey or brown with paler underparts.

Tyrant, Dark-faced Ground-  Muscisaxicola maclovianus  Found: southern South America
The Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant has dark gray-brown upperparts; pale grayish underparts; dark brown crown; blackish face.
Image by: 1) David Cook - Falkland Islands  2) Yann  3) Cristiano Crolle - Las Gaviotas, Argentina


Tyrant, Spot-billed Ground- Muscisaxicola maculirostris Found: South America
Image by: 1) Charlie Westerinen - Argentina  2, 3) Tor Hogsas - Peru



Genus Myiarchus
The Myiarchus flycatcers have brown / olive upperparts; gray and yellow underparts. Often the best way to identify Myiarchus birds is by call. See Sibley for calls of North American birds.

Flycatcher, Ash-throated Myiarchus cinerascens Found: arid west USA south to Costa Rica
The Ash-throated Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts; darker head with short crest; gray breast; pale yellow belly; 2 dull wing-bars. The call is a burry kabrick and a rough prrt or wheer.
Similar to: Brown-creasted Flycatcher. Underparts of Brown-crested Flycatcher have more yellow than Ash-throated Flycatcher.  Brown-crested Flycatcher has a larger bill than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Similar to: Dusky-capped Flycatcher. Underparts of Dusky-capped Flycatcher have more yellow than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Similar to: La Sangra's Flycatcher. La Sagra's Flycatcher has a thinner bill than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Image by: 1)  Maggie Smith - California  2) Docentjoyce    3) Teddy Llovet - California  4) TJ from AZ  5) Brian Wridgway  6, 7) Dick Daniels - Arizona.


Flycatcher, Brown-crested  Myiarchus tyrannulus  Found: south Texas to South America
The Brown-crested Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts; gray breast; lemon-yellow belly; 2 dull wing-bars. The call is a rough loud come HERE, come HERE or whit-will-do, whit-will-do.
Similar to: Ash-throated Flycatcher. Underparts of Brown-crested Flycatcher have more yellow than Ash-throated Flycatcher.  Brown-crested Flycatcher has a larger bill than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Similar to: Dusky-capped Flycatcher. Brown-crested Flycatcher has a larger bill than Dusky-capped Flycatcher.
Similar to: Great Crested Flycatcher. The ranges of Brown-crested Flycatcher and Great Crested Flycatcher do not usually overlap in the United States.
Image by:  1, 5) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) VsmithUK - Mexico  6) Claudio Timm - Argentina  3) dfaulder - Belize  4, 7) Dick Daniels - Arizona 


Flycatcher, Dusky-capped  Myiarchus tuberculifer  Found: southwest USA to South America
The Dusky-capped Flycatcher has brown upperparts; blackish head with short crest; gray breast; yellow belly. The call is a sorrowful, descending, whistled peeur or wheeeeeu.
Similar to: Ash-throated Flycatcher. Underparts of Dusky-capped Flycatcher have more yellow than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Similar to: Brown-crested Flycatcher. Brown-crested Flycatcher has a larger bill than Dusky-capped Flycatcher.
Similar to: Swainson's Flycatcher. Dusky-capped Flycatcher has black head; Swainson's Flycatcher has brown head.
Image by: 1) Mdf  2) Dick Daniels - Royal Palm Reserve, Negril, Jamaica    3) Jerry Oldenettel - Belize   4) Len Blumin - Californina   5)  Barloventomagico - Venezuela



Flycatcher, Great Crested  Myiarchus crinitus  Found: southeast Canada to northwest South America.
The Great Crested Flycatcher has brownish upperparts; gray throat, breast; yellow belly. The call is a whistled, weep.
Similar to: Brown-crested Flycatcher. The ranges of Brown-crested Flycatcher and Great Crested Flycatcher do not usually overlap in the United States.
Similar to: Panama Flycatcher. Great Crested Flycatcher has more obvious crest than Panama Flycatcher and also a deeper yellow breast.
Image by:  1, 4, 5, 7) Dick Daniels - North Carolina 2) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico    3) Amy Evenstad - Florida   6) Dick - near Penonome, Panama



Flycatcher, La Sagra's  Myiarchus sagrae  Found: North America (Alabama, Florida: rare), Caribbean
The La Sagra's Flycatcher's has olive brown upperparts; darker head with short crest; light gray breast; dull white belly; 2 dull wing-bars. The call is a high pitched single or double noted wink.
Similar to: Ash-throated Flycatcher. La Sagra's Flycatcher has a thinner bill than Ash-throated Flycatcher.
Image by: 1) Amy McAndrews - Cuba  2) Blake Maybank - Cuba  3) Carol Foil - Cuba 


Flycatcher, Panama  Myiarchus panamensis  Found: Central and South America
The Panama Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts; gray throat, upper breast; yellow lower breast, belly. It is found in Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela.
Similar to: Great Crested Flycatcher. Great Crested Flycatcher has more obvious crest than Panama Flycatcher and also a deeper yellow breast.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Panama  2) Franceso Veronesi - Panama


Flycatcher, Puerto Rican  Myiarchus antillarum  Endemic to Puerto Rico
Image by: New Jersy Birds


Flycatcher, Sad   Myiarchus barbirostris  Found: Jamaica
Image in Jamaica by: 1, 2, 4) Dick Daniels  3) Dominic Sherony  5) Ron Knight



Flycatcher, Short-crested   Myiarchus ferox  Found: South America
The Short-crested Flycatcher has brown upperparts; gray throat, breast; yellow belly.
Image by: 1) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina  2) Hector Bottai  3) Dario Sanches


Flycatcher, Stolid  Myiarchus stolidus  Found: Caribbean
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2) Ron Knight


Flycatcher, Swainson's  Myiarchus swainsoni  Found: South America
Swainson's Flycatcher has brown upperparts; gray throat, breast; yellowish belly.
Similar to: Dusky-capped Flycatcher. Dusky-capped Flycatcher has black head; Swainson's Flycatcher has brown head.
Image by:  1) Claudi Timm - Brazil  2) Aaron Maizlish - Brazil  3, 4) Barloventomagico  - Venezuela



Genus Myiodynastes


Flycatcher, Streaked  Myiodynastes maculatus  Found: Central America and South America
The Streaked Flycatcher has brown upperparts with darker brown streaks; whitish underparts with brown streaks.
Similar to: Sulpher-bellied Flycatcher. Streaked Flycatcher has a streaked white belly; Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher has a streaked yellowish belly.
Similar to: Variegated Flycatcher. Streaked Flycatcher has bolder streaks on underparts, heavier bill; Variegated Flycatcher has white bolder supercilium.
Image by:  1) dFaulder - Argentina   2, 3) Dario Sanches - Brazil  4) Patty McGann - Panama


Flycatcher, Sulphur-bellied  Myiodynastes luteiventris  Found: North America (Arizona, New Mexico), South America
The Sulpher-bellied Flycatcher has brown upperparts with darker brown streaks; dark eye-line; whitish breast with brown streaks; yellow belly.
Similar to: Streaked Flycatcher. Streaked Flycatcher has a streaked white belly; Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher has a streaked yellowish belly.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony 2) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  4) Bird Brian



Genus Myiopagis

Elaenia, Gray  Myiopagis caniceps  Found: South America
The male Gray Elaenia has gray upperparts; light gray breast; white belly; whitish eye-ring; white wing-bars. Female has olive back; yellow wing-bars.
Similar to: Suiriri Flycatcher. Suririri Flycatcher has olive wash on its gray back; male Gray Elaenia has no olive on its gray back.
Image by: 1) Jorge Montejo - Brazil  2) Charlie Westerinen - Argentina


Elaenia, Jamaican  Myiopagis cotta  Found: Jamaica
Image by: Dominic Sherony



Genus Myiophobus

Flycatcher, Bran-colored   Myiophobus fasciatus   Found: Central and South America
The Bran-colored Flycatcher has chestnut upperparts, head; concealed yellow-crest erected by excited adults; whitish underparts shading to yellow on the belly; streaking on breast, flanks; 2 pale buff wing-bars; black bill above, brown below.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2) Dario Niz  3) Gustavo Duran - Argentina



Genus Myiornis

Tyrant, Eared Pygmy-  Myiornis auricularis  Found: South America
The Eared Pygmy-Tyrant has olive upperparts; whitish throat streaked with black; dark wings and tail both with yellow outer edges; yellow underparts; large black arc behind the eye.
Image by: 1) Claudio Timm  2) Dario Sanches - Brazil



Genus Myiozetetes

Flycatcher, Gray-capped  Myiozetetes granadensis  Found: Central and South America
The Gray-capped Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts; dark gray head with slight supercilium; brown wings, tail; white throat; yellow underparts.
Similar to: Social Flycatcher. The Social Flycatcher has a more prominent white supercilum than does the Gray-capped Flycatcher.
Image by: 1, 2) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica


Flycatcher, Social  Myiozetetes similis Found: Central and South America
The Social Flycatcher has olive-brown upperparts; dark gray head with white supercilium; brown wings, tail; white throat; yellow underparts.
Similar to: Great Kiskadee. Great Kiskadee has much larger bill than Social Flycatcher. Social Flycatcher has brighter underparts.
Similar to: Gray-capped Flycatcher. The Social Flycatcher has a more prominent white supercilum than does the Gray-capped Flycatcher.
Similar to: White-ringed Flycatcher. White-ringed Flycatcher's supercilium completely encircles the head; Social Flycatcher's superciliums are seperate. White-ringed Flycatcher has longer bill.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches in Brazil  3) Dick Daniels - Panama City, Panama  4) Dick - Soberania National Park, Panama



Genus Ochthoeca


Tyrant, Rufous-breasted Chat-  Ochthoeca rufipectoralis  Found: South America
The Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant has a rufous throat, upper breast; brown upperparts and wings in some subspecies; grayer upperparts and wings in other subspecies; white belly; broad white supercilium.
Similar to: White-browed Chat-Tyrant.  Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant has rufous throat, upper breast; White-browed Chat-Tyrant is gray there.
Image by:  1) David Cook  2, 3) Dominic Sherony 


Tyrant, White-browed Chat-  Ochthoeca leucophrys  Found: South America
The White-browed Chat-Tyrant has gray plumage, darker on the upperparts; bold white supercilium; white edged secondary wing feathers.
Similar to: Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant.  Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant has rufous throat, upper breast; White-browed Chat-Tyrant is gray there.
Image by: Dick Daniels - Machu Piccu, Peru



Genus Onychorhynchus
Royal Flycatcher have a striking, colourful crest which is seen after mating, while preening, in courtship as well as being handled. Depending on the authority, the is one species in the genus with four subpecies or 4 species.

Flycatcher, Northern Royal  Onychorhynchus (coronatus) mexicanus  Found:Central America and northern South America
The Northern Royal Flycatcher has brown upperparts; small buffy spots on wing coverts.
Image by: 1) US Geological Survery  2) Steve Garvie - Santa Rosa NP, Guanacaste, Costa Rica  3) Jerry Oldenettel - Belize



Genus Oncostoma

Bentbill, Southern  Oncostoma olivaceum  Found: Columbia and Panama
The Southern Bentbill has a curved bill; gray upperparts; olive-yellow throat, breast; off-white belly.
Image by: 1) Joule E  2) Dominic Sherony



Genus Phyllomyias

Tyrannulet, Mottle-cheeked  Phylloscartes ventralis  Found: South America
The Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet has olive-green upperparts; 2 yellow wing-bars; faint eye-ring; faint eye-line. It often perches with its tail cocked.
Similar to: Sclater's Tyrannulet. Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet has yellower underparts and yellower wing-bars than Sclater's Tyrannulet.
Image by: 1, 3) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  2) Ben Tavener - Brazil
2) This clearly demonstrated the "mottle-cheek" look.


Tyrannulet, Sclater's Phyllomyias sclateri   Found: South America
The Sclater's Tyrannulet has olive upperparts with gray crown; white partial supercilium; white arc below eye; 2 white wing-bars; light gray breast; white belly; relatively long tail. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Peru.
Similar to: Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet. Mottled-cheeked Tyrannulet has yellower underparts and yellower wing-bars than Sclater's Tyrannulet.
Image by:1, 2) Dominic Sherony - Cusco, Peru



Genus Pitangus

Kiskadee, Great  Pitangus sulphuratus  Found: south central USA to South America
The Great Kiskadee has brown  upperparts; black crown; wide white supercilium encircles black crown; wide black eye-line; white lower face, throat; heavy black bill; yellow underparts.
Similar to: Boat-billed Flycatcher. The Boat-billed Flycatcher has a more massive bill than the Great Kiskadee.
Similar to: Lesser Kiskadee. Lesser Kiskadee is smaller than Great Kiskadee and more slender. Lesser Kiskadee has a more slender bill than Great Kiskadee.
Similar to: Social Flycatcher. Great Kiskadee has much larger bill than Social Flycatcher. Social Flycatcher has brighter underparts.
Image by:  1, 2) dFaulder - Buenos Aires, Argentina  3) Dick Daniels - Boquette, Panama   4) Elaine R Wilson  - Martin Homestead Refuge, Edinburg, Texas 5) Dario Sanches - Brazil   6) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina  7) Pablo Leautaud - Mexico



Kiskadee, Lesser  Pitangus lictor  Found: Panama to South America
The Lesser Kiskadee has brown  upperparts; black crown; wide white supercilium encircles black crown; wide black eye-line; white lower face, throat; heavy black bill; yellow underparts.
Similar to: Boat-billed Flycatcher. The Boat-billed Flycatcher has a more massive bill than the Lesser Kiskadee.
Similar to: Great Kiskadee. Lesser Kiskadee is smaller than Great Kiskadee and more slender. Lesser Kiskadee has a more slender bill than Great Kiskadee.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2) Tambako - Brazil   3) Danile Colombo - Brazil  4) Dick Daniels - Soberania National Park, Panama



Genus Platyrinchus
The spadebills have broad, flat, triangular bills.

Spadebill, White-throated   Platyrinchus mystaceus   Found: Central and South America
The White-throated Spadebill has olive-brown upperparts; distinctive face pattern; yellowish supercilium, eye-ring; whitish throat; broad bill, black above, light brown below.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil  3,


Spadebill, Yellow-throated  Platyrinchus flavigularis  Found: Columbia, Eucador, Peru, Venezuela
The Yellow-throated Spadebill has greenish upperparts; light rufous crown; pale yellow underparts.
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - Peru



Genus Poecilotriccus

Flycatcher, Black-backed Tody-  Poecilotriccus pulchellus  Found: Peru
The Black-backed Tody-Flycatcher has black upperparts (female dark olive) with yellow wing patches; white throat; yellow underparts; black eyes.
Image: 1) Joaquin Ugarte  2) Kristian Svensson


Flycatcher, Ochre-faced Tody-  Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps   Found: South America
The Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher has olive upperparts; ochre face patch; gray crown; faint tawny wing-bar; light underparts. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay.
Image by:  1, 4) Claudio Timm - Brazil  2, 3) Dario Sanches - Brazil 



Genus Polystictus

Tachuri, Bearded  Polystictus pectoralis  Found: South America
The Bearded Tachur has cinnamon-brown upperparts; buffy underparts; cinnamon flanks; 2 light wing-bars. Male has black head.
Image by: 1, 2) Cláudio Timm - Reserva Natural Santa María, Argentina
1, 2) Female



Genus Polioxolmis - 1 species

Tyrant, Rufous-webbed Bush-  Polioxolmis rufipennis  Found: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru
The Rufous-webbed Bush-Tyrant has gray upperparts; cinnamon along base of flight feathers, under-wing coverts.
Image by: 1) Charlie Westerinen - Peru   2) Chris Wood - Peru




Genus Pyrocephalus - 1 species

Flycatcher, Vermilion   Pyrocephalus rubinus Found: southwest USA, South America
The male Vermillion Flycatcher has dark brown upperparts; bright red crown, underparts. Female has dark gray upperparts; peach belly.
Image by:  1 Francisco Laso - Galapagos  2) Pleautaud - Jalisco, Mexico  3) Charlie Westerinen - Lima Peru   4) Steve Bedard - Galapagos  5) Pablo Leautaud - Santa Ana Tepetitlán, Jalisco, Mexico   6) Charles & Clint   
1) Juvenile femlae  2) Female  3) Sooty morph  4, 5, 6) Male




Genus Pyrrhomyias - 1 species

Flycatcher, Cinnamon Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus  Found: South America
The Cinnamon Flycatcher has yellowish-brown head, back; cinnaom breast, neck; yellowish throat; black tail.
Image by: 1) Cristóba Alvarado Minic - Rancho Grande. Estado Aragua, Venezuela 
    2, 3) Dominic Sherony - Cusco, Peru



Genus Satrapa - 1 species

Tyrant, Yellow-browed  Satrapa icterophrys  Found: South America
The Yellow-browed Tyrant has dark olive upperparts, crown; dark eye line / patch; yellow supercilium, underparts
Image by: 1, 2) Gustavo Duran - Argentina  3) Lip Kee Yap - Ibera Marshes, Argentina



Genus Sayornis
Phoebes have a characteristic tail wag.

Phoebe, Black Sayornis nigricans Found: The Americas
The Black Phoebe has predominently black plumage; white belly.
Similar to: Eastern Phoebe. Black Phoebe has black breast; Eastern Phoebe has light breast.
Similar to: Say's Phoebe.  Black Phoebe has white belly; Say's Phoebe has orange-tinged belly. Black Phoebe has black breast; Say's Phoebe has light breast.
Image by:  1) Alan D Wilson - La Jolla Shores Beach (Near Scripp's Pier), La Jolla, California   2) Dick Daniels - San Diego, California  3) Dick - Half Moon Bay, California  4, 5, 6) Dick - Ecuador   7) Dick - Boquette, Panama



Phoebe, Eastern Sayornis phoebe Found: North America, South America
The Eastern Phoebe has gray-brown upperparts; white throat; whitish underparts.
Similar to: Black Phoebe. Black Phoebe has black breast; Estern Phoebe has light breast.
Similar to: Eastern Wood-Pewee. Eastern Wood-Pewee has more distinct wing-bars than Eastern Phoebe. Eastern Phoebe bobs its tail frequently.
Similar to: Say's Phoebe. Eastern Phoebe has light belly; Say's Phoebe has orange-tinged belly.
Image by: 1) John  Benson - Wisconsin  2)  Cephas - Quebec  3) Dick Daniels - Maine  4) Dick - North Carolina  


Phoebe, Says Sayornis saya Found: North America
The Says Phoebe has gray-brown upperparts; darker head; black tail; pale buffy cinnamon underparts.
Similar to: Black Phoebe.  Black Phoebe has white belly; Say's Phoebe has orange-tinged belly. Black Phoebe has black breast; Say's Phoebe has light breast.
Similar to: Eastern Phoebe. Eastern Phoebe has light belly; Say's Phoebe has orange-tinged belly.
Image by: 1) Kevin Cole  2) Wolfgang Wander  3) Chris Queen



Genus Serpophaga

Tyrannulet, Sooty  Serpophaga nigricans  Found: South America
The Sooty Tyrannulet brownish-gray upperparts; black tail; light gray underparts.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil  3) Cristiano Crolle - Esteros del Iberà, Argentina


Tyrannulet, Torrent  Serpophaga cinerea  Found: Central and South America
The Torrent Tyrannulet looks for insects near fast flowing streams and rivers.  The male has pale gray upperparts; black head, wings, tail; grayish-white underparts becoming whiter at the throat and belly.
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - Sacred Valley, Peru  2) David Cooke - Peru  3) Francesco Veronesi - Ecuador


Tyrannulet, White-crested   Serpophaga subcristata  Found: South America
The White-crested Tyrannulet has greenish upperparts; blackish wings with white wing-bars; dark eye-line, whitish supercilium.
Image by: 1) Hector Bottai  2) Dario Sanches - Brazil 



Genus Sublegatus

Flycatcher, Southern Scrub-  Sublegatus modestus  Found: South America
The Southern Scrub-Flycatcher has gray upperparts; off-white wing-bars; weak eye-line; pale white eye-ring; gray breast; yellow belly.
Similar to: Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher. Southern-Scrub-Flycatcher has obvious wing-bars. Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher has faint wing-bars; light yellow belly.
Image by: Cláudio Timm 



Genus Suiriri

Flycatcher, Suririri  Suiriri suiriri  Found: South America
The Suririri Flycatcher has gray upperparts; pale eye-ring; light gray breast; whitish belly.
Similar to: Gray Elaenia. Suririri Flycatcher has olive wash on its gray back; male Gray Elaenia has no olive on its gray back.
Image by: Cláudio Timm in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil



Genus Todirostrum

Flycatcher, Common Tody-  Todirostrum cinereum  Found: South America
The Common Tody-Flycatcher has olive-green upperparts; black head; gray nape; yellow wing-bars, underparts; black bill; yellow iris.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil  5) Barloventomagico - Venezuela  6) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica



Flycatcher, Spotted Tody  Todirostrum maculatum  Found: South America
The Spotted Tody-Flycatcher has olive upperparts; gray crown; whitish throat with gray spots; yellow streaked underparts; yellow iris.
Image by:  1, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - Venezuela  2) Claudio Timm



Genus Tolmomyias

Flycatcher, Yellow-breasted  also Yellow-breasted Flatbill  Tolmomyias flaviventris  Found: South America
The Yellow-breasted Flycatcher has an olive crown; yellow underparts; wide flat triangular bill.
Image by: New Jersey Birds


Flycatcher, Yellow-olive  also Yellow-olive Flatbill  Tolmomyias sulphurescens  Found: Central and South America
The Yellow-olive Flycatcher has olive upperparts; gray crown; dark iris; light eye-ring; yellow wing-bars; yellow underparts blending to grayish on upper breast.
Image by:  1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil  3) Erick Houli



Genus Tyrannus
Members of Tyrannus prefer semi-open or open areas. These birds wait on an exposed perch and then catch insects in flight. They have long pointed wings and large broad bills. These birds tend to defend their breeding territories aggressively, often chasing away much larger birds.

Flycatcher, Fork-tailed  Tyrannus savana  Found: North America (rare), South America
The Fork-tailed Flycatcher has gray upperparts; black head; white throat, underparts. Males have a long forked tail.
Similar to: Scissor Flycatcher. Fork-tailed Flycatcher has a dark head; Scissor-tailed Flycatcher has a light head.
Image by: 1, 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil   2) Claudio Timm - Brazil  3) dFaulder - Ceibas area, Entre Rios, Argentina


Flycatcher, Scissor-tailed  Tyrannus forficatus  Found: south central USA to South America
The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher has pale gray upperparts, head; light underparts; salmon-pink flanks; extremely long forked tails.
Similar to: Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Fork-tailed Flycatcher has a dark head; Scissor-tailed Flycatcher has a light head.
Image by: 1, 6) Ken Slade - Texas    2, 3) Dick Daniels - National Aviary   4) Gary Kramer of the USFWS  5) Sandy Cole National Aviay



Kingbird, Cassin's  Tyrannus vociferans  Found: west USA to Honduras
The Cassin's Kingbird has gray-olive upperparts with beige wings; gray head; slightly darker cheeks; pale throat; gray breast; yellow belly.
Similar to: Couch's Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird. Cassin's Kingbird has gray on breast; Couch's Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird have yellow on breast.
Similar to: Western Kingbird. White under chin of Cassin's Kingbird more defined than for Western Kingbird. Gray on Cassin's chest is darker.
Image by: 1) Davefoc - California  2) Linda Tanner   3) Jamie Chavez - California   4) Pablo Leautard - Mexico  5) Mike Baird - CA



Kingbird, Couch's  Tyrannus couchii  Found: south Texas to Guatemala and Belize
The Couch's Kingbird has grayish-olive upperparts;  gray head; light throat; gray upper-breast transitions to yellow lower-breast; yellow belly.
Similar to: Cassin's Kingbird, Western Kingbird. Cassin's Kingbird, Western Kingbird have gray on breast; Couch's Kingbird has yellow on breast.
Similar to: Tropical Kingbird. Tropical Kingbirds and Couch's Kingbirds are very similar. They are best identified by voice. Couch's tends to have longer bill.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Texas  2, 3, 4) Carol Foil - Belize
4) Note the seldom seen red crest


Kingbird, Eastern Tyrannus tyrannus Found: North America, South America
The Eastern Kingbird has gray-black upperparts, head; white throat, underparts; white-tipped tail.
Similar to: Gray Kingbird. Upperparts of Eastern Kingbird are darker. Gray Kingbird tail is distinctly tipped with white; Gary Kingbird is not.
Similar to: Loggerhead Kingbird. Their ranges do not overlap. Upperparts of Eastern Kingbird are darker. Loggerhead Kingfisher has larger bill.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - North Carolina   4) Dawn Huczek


Kingbird, Giant   Tyrannus cubensis  Found: Cuba
The Giant Kingbird is not the largest kingbird; Thick-billed Kingbird is slightly larger.
Similar to: Loggerhead Kingbird. Giant Kingbird has a shorter tail than Loggerhead Kingbird. Lower border of Loggerhead Kingbird's cap is more clearly defined.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony 2) Laura Gooch - Cuba


Kingbird, Gray  Tyrannus dominicensis  Found: coastal southeast USA to Columbia and Venezuela, Caribbean
The Gray Kingbird has gray upperparts with brownish wings and tail; white underparts with grayish tinge to breast; dusky mask through the eye.
Similar to: Eastern Kingbird. Upperparts of Eastern Kingbird are darker. Gray Kingbird tail is distinctly tipped with white; Gary Kingbird is not.
Similar to: Loggerhead Kingbird. Gray Kingbird has a gray cap and a dusky mask through the eyes; Loggerhead Kingbird has a black cap and no mask through the eyes.
Similar toThick-billed Kingbird. Gray Kingbird and Thick-billed Kingbird both have large bills. Thick-billed Kingbird usually has some yellow on the belly, Gray Kingbird has a white belly.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Puerto Rico  4) Dick - St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands


Kingbird, Loggerhead  Tyrannus caudifasciatus  Found: Caribbean
The Loggerhead Kingbird has olive-brown upperparts; dark head; white underparts; whitish tipped tail.
Similar to: Eastern Kingbird. Their ranges do not overlap. Upperparts of Eastern Kingbird are darker. Loggerhead Kingfisher has larger bill.Similar to: Giant Kingbird. Giant Kingbird has a shorter tail than Loggerhead Kingbird. Lower border of Loggerhead Kingbird's cap is more clearly defined.
Similar to: Gray Kingbird. Gray Kingbird has a gray cap and a dusky mask through the eyes; Loggerhead Kingbird has a black cap and no mask through the eyes.
Similar toThick-billed Kingbird. Gray Kingbird and Thick-billed Kingbird both have large bills. Thick-billed Kingbird usually has some yellow on the belly, Gray Kingbird has a white belly.
Image by: 1) Laura Gooch - Cuba  2, 3, 4) Dick Daniels - Jamaica 


Kingbird, Snowy-throated Tyrannus niveigularis  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Snowy-throated has olive-green upperparts; pale-gray head; white throat, upper-breast; yellow lower-breast, belly.
Similar to; Tropical Kingbird, White-throated Kingbird. Snowy-throated Kingbird has whiter throat and darker side of head than Tropical Kingbird or White-throated Kingbird.
Image by: 1) Joseph Smit  2) Richard Gibbons - Peru


Kingbird, Thick-billed  Tyrannus crassirostris  Found: sowthwest USA to Guatemala
The Thick-billed Kingbird has olive-brown upperparts; dull white throat transistion to pale yellow belly; dark tail.
Similar toGray Kingbird. Gray Kingbird and Thick-billed Kingbird both have large bills. Thick-billed Kingbird usually has some yellow on the belly, Gray Kingbird has a white belly.
Similar to: Loggerhead Kingbird. Gray Kingbird has a gray cap and a dusky mask through the eyes; Loggerhead Kingbird has a black cap and no mask through the eyes.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Arizona  2, 3, 4) Marcel Holyoak - Arizona and Mexico


Kingbird, Tropical  Tyrannus melancholicus  Found: The Americas
The Tropical Kingbird has a grayish-green back; brown wings, forked-tail; pale gray throat; yellow breast, belly.
Similar to: Cassin's Kingbird, Western Kingbird. Cassin's Kingbird, Western Kingbird have gray on breast; Tropical Kingbird has yellow on breast.
Similar to; Couch's Kingbird. Tropical Kingbirds and Couch's Kingbirds are very similar. They are best identified by voice. Couch's tends to have longer bill.
Similar to; Snowy-throated Kingbird. Snowy-throated Kingbird has whiter throat and darker side of head than Tropical Kingbird.
Similar to; White-throated Kingbird. The eye mask of White-throated Kingbird more significant than that of Tropical Kingbird. White-throated Kingbrd has whiter throat.
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - California  2) Dario Sanches - Brazil     3) dFaulder - Argentina    4, 6) Dick Daniels - Machu Piccu, Peru  5) Wagner Lemes   7) Dick - Panama City, Panama
6) Adult and juvenile



Kingbird, Western Tyrannus verticalis Found: North America
The Western Kingbird has gray-olive upperparts; gray head; dark eye-line; light throat; light upper-breast transitioning to orange-yellow belly; long black tail.
Similar to: Cassin's Kingbird. White under chin of Cassin's Kingbird more defined than for Western Kingbird. Gray on Cassin's chest is darker.
Similar to: Couch's Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird. Western Kingbird has gray on breast; Couch's Kingbird, Tropical Kingbird have yellow on breast.
Image by: 1) John and_Karen Hollingsworth  of the US_Fish and Wildlife Service  2)  Linda Tanner    3) Jamie Chavez - California  4) Ken Slade - Texas


Kingbird, White-throated Tyrannus albogularis  Found: South America - the Amazon Basin
The White-throated Kingbird has a grayish-green back; brown wings, forked-tail; dark eye-mask; white throat; yellow breast, belly.
Similar to; Snowy-throated Kingbird. Snowy-throated Kingbird has whiter throat and darker side of head than White-throated Kingbird.
Similar to: Tropical Kingbird. The eye mask of White-throated Kingbird more significant than that of Tropical Kingbird. White-throated Kingbrd has whiter throat.
Image by: 1, 2) Dario Sanches - Brazil



Genus Xolmis

Diucon, Fire-eyed  Xolmis pyrope  Found: South America
The Fire-eyed Diucon has gray upperparts; light gray underparts; red eyes.
Image by dFaulder - Puerto Aisen, Chile


Monjita, Black-and-white Xolmis dominicanus  Found: South America
The Black-and-white Monjita has white plumage with black wings and tail.
Similar to: White Monjita. Black-and-white Monjita has all black tail; White Monjitaa has white tail with black tip.
Image by: 1) John Gould 2)  Cláudio Timm - Castillo, Uruguay


Monjita, Gray  Xolmis cinereus  Found: South America
The Gray Monjita has gray upperparts; dark wings; dark tail with light tip; off-white underparts; white forehead; dark eye-line; dark moustachial stripe.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Fazenda Campo de Ouro, Piraju, São Paulo, Brazil    2) Dario Niz - Uruguay


Monjita, White  Xolmis irupero    Found: South America
The White Monjita has white plumage with black tipped tail; black flight feathers.
Similar to: Black-and-white Monjita. Black-and-white Monjita has all black tail; White Monjitaa has white tail with black tip.
Image by:  1) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 
   2) Lip Kee Yap - Entre Rios, Argentina  3) dFaulder - Ceibas area, Entre Rios, Argentina


Genus Zimmerius

Tyrannulet, Red-billed  Zimmerius cinereicapilla  Found: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
Red-billed TYrannulet has olive upperparts; gray cap; yellowish underparts; black upper mandible; red lower manbile.
Image by: Dick Daniels - Peru





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