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VIREOs

Order Passeriformes    Family Vireonidae - 1 genus


The vireos are a group of small to medium-sized mostlyrestricted to the New World. They are typically dull-plumaged and greenish in color, the smaller species resembling wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. They range in size from 10 centimeters and 8 grams, to up to 17 centimeters and 40 grams. Males of most species are persistent singers. Songs are usually rather simple, monotonous. All members of the family eat some fruit but mostly insects and other arthropods. They take prey from leaves and branches; true vireos also flycatch.

In addition to species call "vireos", this family also includes greenlets, shrike-babblers, shrike-vireos.


Genus Cyclarhis

Peppershrike,_Rufous-browed  Cyclarhis gujanensis  Found: Central and South America
The Rufous-browed Peppershrike is bull-headed with a thick, somewhat shrike-like bill, which typically is blackish below and pinkish-grey above. The head is gray with a strong rufous eyebrow. The upperparts are green, and the yellow throat and breast shade into a white belly.
Image by: 1,  2) Dario Sanches - Brazil 3) Wagner_Carlos_Lemes
1) Sub-adult



Genus Hylophilus

Greenlet,_Ashy-headed   Hylophilus pectoralis  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, the Guianas
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas - Brazil  2) Claudio_Timm


Greenlet,_Brown-headed   Hylophilus brunneiceps  Found: northern Brazial and adjacent Columbia, Venezuela
The Brown-headed Greenlet has olive-green upperparts; brown head; gray-white underparts.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2) Arthur Grosset - Brazil


Greenlet,_Gray-chested   Hylophilus semicinereus  Found: mainly Brazil, Venezuela; also Bolivia, Peru
The Gray-chested Greenlet has olive upperparts, cap; gray face, throat, breast; whitish belly.
Image by: 1) Hector_Bottai - Brazil  2) Nick Athanas  3) Joao Quental - Brazil


Greenlet,_Gray-eyed   Hylophilus amaurocephalus  Found: mainly eastern Brazil; also Bolivia
The Gray-eyed Greenlet has gray-brown back; rufous crown; gray face; pale gray eyes.
Similar to: Rufous-crowned Greenlet. Gray-eyed Greenlet has pale gray eyes; Rufous-crowned Greenlet has dark eyes.
Image by: 1) Claudio_Timm - Brazil   2) Nick Athanas - Brazil  3) Bertrando Campos - Brazil


Greenlet,_Lemon-chested   Hylophilus thoracicus  Found: mainly Bolivia, Brazil, the Guianas, Peru, Venezuela; also Columbia, Ecuador
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi - Brazil


Greenlet,_Olivaceous  Hylophilus olivaceus  Found: Ecuador, Peru
The Olivaceous Greenlet has olive upperparts; yellowish-olive underparts; pale eyes; pinkish bill. The Scrub Greenlet and Olivaceous Greenlet are sometimes considered conspecific.
Image by: 1) 1) Francesco_Veronesi - Ecuador


Greenlet,_Rufous-crowned   Hylophilus poicilotis  Found: southern Brazil, Paraguay
The Rufous-crowned Greenlet has olive-green upperparts; yellowish-gray underparts; dark eyes.
Similar to: Gray-eyed Greenlet. Gray-eyed Greenlet has pale gray eyes; Rufous-crowned Greenlet has dark eyes.
Image by: 1) Hector_Bottai - Brazil  2) Nick Athanas - Brazil  3) Carlos_de_Almeida - Brazil


Greenlet,_Scrub  Hylophilus flavipes  Found: Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela
The Scrub Greenlet and Olivaceous Greenlet are sometimes considered conspecific.
Image by: 1) Brendan_Ryan - Columbia  2) Jei_Pov - Columbia



Genus Pachysylvia

Greenlet,_Buff-cheeked   Pachysylvia muscicapina  Found: mainly Brazil, the Guinans, Venezuela; also Bolivia
The Buff-cheeked Greenlet has olive-green upperparts; gray rear-crown, nape; rufous lores, forehead; whitish underparts.
Image by: 1) Hector_Bottai


Greenlet,_Dusky-capped   Pachysylvia hypoxantha  Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
The Dusky-capped Greenlet has olive-green upperparts; greenish-yellow to dull yellow underparts; brownish-gray head; faint eye-line; hint of eye-ring.
Image by: 1) Dominic_Sherony  2) Joan_and_George


Greenlet,_Golden-fronted   Pachysylvia aurantiifrons  Found: Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad
The Golcen-fronted Greenlet has green wings, tail; buffy-brown head, underparts; golden forehead.
Image by: 1) Arthur Grosset  2) Barloventomagico - Venezuela  3) Francesco_Veronesi - Panama


Greenlet,_Lesser   Pachysylvia decurtata  Found: Mexico to Columbia and Ecuador
The Lesser Greenlet has green upperparts; bluish-gray crown; pale lores, eye-ring; pale underparts; yellowish flanks.
Image by: 1, 2) Nick Athanas - Mexico, Ecuador  3) Francesco_Veronesi - Mexico


Greenlet,_Rufous-naped   Pachysylvia semibrunnea  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, perhaps Venezuela
The Rufous-naped Greenlet has olive-green upperparts; rufous nape, crown; grayish-white face, underparts.
Image by: 1) Alejandro_Tamayo - Columbia  2) Rodrigo Gaviriao - Columbia



Genus Pteruthius
The Shrike-Babblers are found in Asia. They have a shrike-like hooked bill. They were previously placed in the babbler family Timaliidae.

Shrike-Babbler,_Black-eared   Pteruthius melanotis  Found: southern and eastern Asia
Image by: 1, 2) Dibyendu_Ash


Shrike-Babbler,_Black-headed   Pteruthius rufiventer  Found: eastern Nepal to northwest Vietnam
Image by: 1) John & Jemi Holmes - China  2) Jainy_Kuriakose - India
1) Female 2) Male


Shrike-Babbler,_Blyth's   Pteruthius aeralatus  Found: southeast Asia
Blyth's Shrike-Babbler, Dalat Shrike-Babbler, Himalayan Shrike-Babbler, and Pied_Shrike-Babber were previous collectively called the White-browed Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1) Jyoti_Rani_Ahlawat - India  2) Myron_Tay  3) soumyajit_nandy 4) Pkspks
1) Female 2, 3) Male
2) P. a. ricketti   3) P. a. validirostris


Shrike-Babbler,_Clicking   Pteruthius intermedius  Found: southern China
The Clicking Shrike-Babbler and the Trilling Shrike-Babbler used to be consider conspecific and called the Chestnut-fronted Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1) Dave_Curtis - Thailand  2) Khaleb_Yordan


Shrike-Babbler,_Dalat   Pteruthius annamensis  Found: southern Vietnam
Blyth's Shrike-Babbler, Dalat Shrike-Babbler, Himalayan Shrike-Babbler, and Pied_Shrike-Babber were previous collectively called the White-browed Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1, 2) Tim - Vietnam


Shrike-Babbler,_Green   Pteruthius xanthochlorus  Found: Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Vietnam
The male Green Shrike-Babbler has olive-green upperparts; gray head; ashy-gray throat, breast; yellow belly. Female duller than male.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi  2) Dibyendu_Ash - India
1) Female 2) Male


Shrike-Babbler,_Himalayan   Pteruthius ripleyi  Found:
Blyth's Shrike-Babbler, Dalat Shrike-Babbler, Himalayan Shrike-Babbler, and Pied_Shrike-Babber were previous collectively called the White-browed Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1, 2) Dibyendu_Ash
1) Female 2) Male


Shrike-Babbler,_Pied   Pteruthius flaviscapis  Found:
Blyth's Shrike-Babbler, Dalat Shrike-Babbler, Himalayan Shrike-Babbler, and Pied_Shrike-Babber were previous collectively called the White-browed Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1) Khaleb Yordan - Java  2) Zulqarnain_Assiddiqi - Java   3) Alex_Vargas - Thailand
1) Female and juvenile  2, 3) Male


Shrike-Babbler,_Trilling   Pteruthius aenobarbus  Found: Java, Indonesia
The Clicking Shrike-Babbler and the Trilling Shrike-Babbler used to be consider conspecific and called the Chestnut-fronted Shrike-Babbler.
Image by: 1, 2) Lip Kee - Cibodas, Java, Indonesia



Genus Tunchiornis - 1 species
Also included in genu Hylophilus

Greenlet,_Tawny-crowned   Tunchiornis ochraceiceps also Found: Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil
The Tawny-crowned Greenlet has olive-brown upperparts; ochre crown; gray face; ochraceous breast; pale yellow belly.
Image by: 1) Leslie Tucci  2) Dominic_Sherony - Belize  3) Christopher_Canaday - Ecuador



Genus Vireo

Vireo, Bell's   Vireo bellii  Found: North America
Similar to: Juvenile Verdin.
Similar to: Gray Vireo. Gray Vireo has a distinct eye-ring, Bell's has a split eye-ring.
Image by: 1) Steve Maslowski, USFWS  2) Bill Bouton - California   3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico
 1, 2) Western  3) Eastern


Vireo, Black-capped  Vireo atricapilla  Found: North America
Similar to: Blue-headed Vireo. The blue-gray head of the Blue-headed Vireo differs from the Gary to black head of the Black-capped Vireo. Black-capped Vireo is not found in eastern North America while Blue-headed Vireo is.
Similar toDwarf Vireo. Male Dwarf Vireo similar to female Black-capped Vireo. Black-capped Vire has more contrasting gray crown; less contrast between throat and sides of head.
Image by: 1) Mike Baranski  2) Francesco Veronesi - Texas 3, 4) Birdfilms - Texas


Vireo, Black-whiskered   Vireo altiloquus  Found: The Americas
Similar to: Red-eyed Vireo, Yellow-green Vireo. All have red eyes, a dark-eye line amd white eyebrow stripe. The Red-eyed Vireo has black border above the eyebrow stripe. The Black-whiskered Vireo has a black lateral throat-stripe. The Yellow-green Vireo has the most yellow on its underparts and the smallest amount of white on its eyebrow stripe.
Image by:  Josh Noseworthy  2, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - Florida  4) Ken Schneider - Florida


Vireo, Blue-headed  Vireo solitarius   Found: North America and Central America
Similar to: Cassin's Vireo, Plumbeous Vireo. These 3 species were once considered one species: Solitary Vireo. The range of the Blue-headed Vireo, which is in the east to mid west, has very little overlap with the other 2 species. The flanks of the Plumbeous Vireo, have little or no yellow, unlike the other 2 species. The head of the Blue-headed Vireo has strong contrast with its white throat.
Image by: 1 Dominic Sherony   2)  Chephas - Quebec, Canada  3) Dick Daniels - New Hampshire


Vireo,_Blue_Mountain   Vireo osburni  Found: Jamaica
The Blue Mountain Vireo has large black bill; dark eyes; no wing-bars.
Image by: 1) Dominic_Sherony  2) Ron_Knight


Vireo,_Brown-capped   Vireo leucophrys  Found: Mexico south to Bolivia
The Brown-capped Vireo has olive-green upperparts; brown crown, eye-line; white supercilium; off-white face, throat; yellow underparts with some olive on flanks.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas - Ecuador  2) Francesco_Veronesi - Ecuador  3) Jerry_Oldenettel - Ecuador


Vireo, Cassin's   Vireo cassinii  Found: North America
Similar to: Blue-headed Vireo, Plumbeous Vireo. These 3 species were once considered one species: Solitary Vireo. The range of the Blue-headed Vireo, which is in the east to mid west, has very little overlap with the other 2 species. The flanks of the Plumbeous Vireo, have little or no yellow, unlike the other 2 species. The head of the Blue-headed Vireo has strong contrast with its white throat.
Image by:1) Rick Leche - Burnaby Lake Avian Research Centre   2) Frank Lospalluto   3) Jerry Oldenettel  4)Julio Mulero - California


Vireo,_Choco   Vireo masteri  Found: western Columbia, northwest Ecuador
The Choco Vireo has grayish-olive crown; dark eye-line; creamy double wing-bar; creamy-white underparts.
Image by: 1) Ian_Davies - Ecuador


Vireo,_Cozumel   Vireo bairdi  Found: island of Cozumel in Mexico
The Cozumel Vireo has mainly brown upperparts, head; white lores.
Image by: 1) Amy_McAndrews - Cozumel


Vireo,_Cuban   Vireo gundlachii  Found: Cuba
The Cuban Vireo has creamy lores and crescent behind eye; no eye-line; one or two faint wing-bars. The only other vireo on Cuba is the Black-whiskered Vireo which has an eye-line and pale supercilium.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi  2) Allan_Hopkins  3) Amy_McAndrews


Vireo,_Dwarf   Vireo nelsoni  Found: Mexico
The Dwarf Vireo has olive upperparts; pale lores; broken eye-ring; two white wing-bars; pale grayish-white underparts.
Similar to: Black-capped Vireo. Male Dwarf Vireo similar to female Black-capped Vireo. Black-capped Vire has more contrasting gray crown; less contrast between throat and sides of head.
. Image by: 1) Amy_McAndrews  2) Ron Knight


Vireo,_Flat-billed   Vireo nanus  Found: Dominican Republic, Haiti
The Flat-billed Vireo has grayish-green upperparts; two white wing-bars; pale yellow underparts.
Image by: 1) Miguel_Landestoy  2) Rafy_Rodriguez


Vireo,_Golden   Vireo hypochryseus  Found: Mexico
The Golden Vireo has mainly green upperparts; gold supercilium; yellow underparts.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Nick Athanas - Mexico


Vireo, Gray  Vireo vicinior   Found: North America
The Gray Vireo has gray upperparts;  thin white eye-ring; whitish-gray underparts.
Similar to
: Bell's Vireo. Gray Vireo has a distinct eye-ring, Bell's has a split eye-ring.
Similar to: Plumbeous Vireo. Plumbeous Vireo has a wider eye-ring than Gray Vireo. Gray Vireo found on dry, open hillsides, Plumbeous Vireo likes a treed landscape.
Image by: 1) Mark Watson - New Mexico  2) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  3) Tony_Morris


Vireo, Hutton's  Vireo huttoni  Found: North America
Similar to: Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Hutton's Vireo has thick bill; Ruby-crowned Kinglet has thin bill. Ruby-crowned Vireo has black wing-bar (behind a white bar); Hutton's Vireo does not have black wing-bar. Hutton's Vireo considerably larger than Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Both do frequent wing flicking, but the Kinglet flicks more often.
Image by: 1) Seabamirum   2) Julio Mulero - California  3) Bill Bouton - California   4) Minette Layne - Washington 


Vireo,_Jamaican   Vireo modestus  Found: Jamaica
Image by: 1) John_Jennens  2) Rafy_Rodriguez


Vireo,_Mangrove   Vireo pallens  Found: Mexico, Central America
The Mangrove Vireo has olive-gray upperparts; yellow lores; two white wing-bars.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans 2) Amy_McAndrews


Vireo,_Noronha   Vireo gracilirostris  Found: island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil
The Noronha Vireo has been consider a subspecies of the Red-eyed Vireo. It has duller coloration, longer and finer bill; brown eyes.
Image by: 1) Marco_Cruz  2) Ivan_Sazima


Vireo, Philadelphia Vireo philadelphicus   Found: North America
Similar to: Warbling Vireo, Both vireos have white eyebrows. The Warbling Vireo has off-white underparts which may tend to yellowish at the edges. The Philadelphia Warbler has a yellow throat; the exent of the yellow on the rest of the underbody varies with the subspecies.
Image by: 1) Brian McClure   2) William Majoros  3, 4) Dominic Sherony


Vireo, Plumbeous Vireo plumbeus  Found: North America
Similar to: Blue-headed Vireo, Cassin's Vireo. These 3 species were once considered one species: Solitary Vireo. The range of the Blue-headed Vireo, which is in the east to mid west, has very little overlap with the other 2 species. The flanks of the Plumbeous Vireo, have little or no yellow, unlike the other 2 species. The head of the Blue-headed Vireo has strong contrast with its white throat.
Similar to: Gray Vireo. Plumbeous Vireo has a wider eye-ring than Gray Vireo. Gray Vireo found on dry, open hillsides, Plumbeous Vireo likes a treed landscape.
Image by: 1) BruceCyg - Colorado  2) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  3) Julio Mulero - California


Vireo,_Puerto_Rican   Vireo latimeri  Found: Puerto Rico
The Puerto Rican Vireo has gray head; yellowish and white underparts..
Image by: 1) Rafy_Rodriguez  2) Benny_Diaz


Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo olivaceus   Found: The Americas
Similar to: Black-whiskered Vireo, Yellow-green Vireo. All have red eyes, a dark-eye line amd white eyebrow stripe. The Red-eyed Vireo has black border above the eyebrow stripe. The Black-whiskered Vireo has a black lateral throat-stripe. The Yellow-green Vireo has the most yellow on its underparts and the smallest amount of white on its eyebrow stripe.
Image by: 1) Kent McFarland - Vermont  2, 3) Laura Gooch - Ohio   4, 5) Dario Sanches - Brazil   6) Eugene Beckes  - Montana  7) Gary Mercier - Quebec



Vireo,_San_Andres   Vireo caribaeus  Found: San Andres island (off Nicaragua)
The San Andres Vireo has olive-green upperparts; whitish or yellow underparts. Good field marks are the yellow lores and white wing-bars.
Image by: 1) Tom_Friedel


Vireo,_Slaty   Vireo brevipennis  Found: Mexico
The Slaty Vireo has slaty gray mantle, face, underparts; green cap, wings, tail; white throat patch; pale eyes.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas - Mexico  2) Peter_Bono


Vireo,_Tepui   Vireo sclateri  Found: the Guianas, Venezuela, nearby Brazil
Image by: 1) John_Mittermeier


Vireo,_Thick-billed   Vireo crassirostris  Found: bahamas, Caymans, Caicos, Turks
The Thick-billed Vireo has olive-green upperparts; yellow super loral; two white wing-bars; whitish to yellowish underparts (subspecies dependent).
Image by: 1) Mikko Pyhälä


Vireo, Warbling Vireo gilvus   Found: The Americas
Similar to: Philadelphia Vireo, Both vireos have white eyebrows. The Warbling Vireo has off-white underparts which may tend to yellowish at the edges. The Philadelphia Warbler has a yellow throat; the exent of the yellow on the rest of the underbody varies with the subspecies.
Image by: 1) Rick Leche - burnaby lake avian research centre  2) Mark Watson - New Mexico 3) John Harrison - Mount Auburn Cemetery, Massachusetts  4)  Len Blumin - Mercuryville, California


Vireo, White-eyed  Vireo griseus  Found: North America and Central America 
The White-eyed Vireo's head and back are a grayish olive, and the underparts are white with yellow flanks. The wings and tail are dark, and there are two white wing bars on each wing. The eyes have white irises, and are surrounded by yellow spectacles.
Image by:  1) T Davis - Florida  2, 3) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  4) Alastair Rae - Mexico


Vireo, Yellow-green   Vireo flavoviridis  Found: The Americas
Similar to: Black-whiskered Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo. All have red eyes, a dark-eye line amd white eyebrow stripe. The Red-eyed Vireo has black border above the eyebrow stripe. The Black-whiskered Vireo has a black lateral throat-stripe. The Yellow-green Vireo has the most yellow on its underparts and the smallest amount of white on its eyebrow stripe.
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - California  2) Maggie Smith  3) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica  4) Dick Daniels - near Penonome, Panama


Vireo, Yellow-throated Vireo flavifrons  Found: North America and Central America
Similar to: male Pine Warbler. The Yellow-throated Vireo has brighter yellow eye-ring. The Pine Warbler has streaked yellow breast and not as much white on its belly.
Similar to: Yellow-breasted Chat. Yellow-throated Vireo has yellow eye-rings and wingbars; Yellow-breasted Chat has white eye-rings and no wingbars
Image by: 1) Seabrook Leckie  2) Mdf - Ontario  3) Matt Tillett - Maryland  4) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica  5) Dominic Sherony  6, 7) Dick Daniels - Panama (identified by Matt Janson)


Vireo,_Yellow-winged   Vireo carmioli  Found: mainly Costa Rica; also Panama
The Yellow-winged Vireo has mainly olive-green upperparts; yellow supercilium; bold yellowish wing-bars; yellowish underparts.
Image by: 1) Nick Athanas - Costa Rica


Vireo,_Yucatan   Vireo magister  Found: Yucatan Peninsular - mainly Mexico; also Belize
The Yucatan Vireo has dull olive gray upperparts; dull gray crown; broad white supercilium; whitish throat, underparts.
Image by: 1) dFaulder



Genus Vireolanius

Vireo,_Chestnut-sided_Shrike-   Vireolanius melitophrys  Found: Mexico, Guatemala
The Chestnut-sided Shrike-Verio has bluish-gray cronw, nape; bold yellow supercilium extends to nape; black eye-line; black malar streak; white throat, underparts; black thin breast-band; chestnut flanks.
Image by: 1) Biodiversity_Heritage_Library  2) Knut_Eisermann  3) Ron_Knight


Vireo, Green Shrike-  Vireolanius pulchellus  Found: Mexico, Central America
The Green Shrike-Vireo has mainly green plumage; yellow throat patch. Some races have blue crown, nape.
Image by: 1, 2) Dominic Sherony


Vireo,_Slaty-capped_Shrike-   Vireolanius leucotis  Found: northern South America
The Slaty-capped Vireo has olive upperparts; blue-gray head with broad yellow supercilium; yellow patch under eyes; pale yellow eyes; stout gray bill; yellow underparts.
Image by: 1) Hector_Bottai - Brazil  2) Jorge_Montejo - Brazil


Vireo,_Yellow-browed_Shrike-   Vireolanius eximius  Found: mainly Columbia; also Panama, Venezuela
The Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo is sometimes considered conspecific with the Green Shrike-Vireo. It can be identified by its bold yellow supercilium.
Image by: 1) Diego_Calderon - Columbia  2) Carol_Downing



Vireos are the Erphonis closest relative, but it is debateable whether or not they are in the Vireonidae family.

Genus Erpornis - 1 species

Erpornis,_White-bellied also White-bellied Yuhina Erpornis zantholeuca   Found: Asia
The White-bellied Erpornis has olivaceous or golden-brown upperparts, head; grayish-white underparts.
Image by: 1) PeiWen Chang  2) Characters  3) John_and_Fish





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