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Piciformes

The order Piciformes is made up of the woodpecker family Picidae plus 8 other families. Picidae make up about half of the species. In general, the Piciformes are insectivorous, but some exceptions eat mostly fruit. Nearly all Piciformes have parrot-like feet—two toes forward and two back, an arrangement that has obvious advantages for birds that spend much of their time on tree trunks. And most Piciformes do not have down feathers at any age, only true feathers. All nest in cavites.


Family Ramphastidae: Toucans and Allies

Toucans, Toucantes, and Aracaris are birds of Ramphastidae family. They reside in the neotropics (i.e. Southern Mexico, Central, South American, and Caribbean region). The family is most closely related to the American barbets. They are brightly marked and have large, colorful bills which is the hallmark of toucans. Despite its size, the bill it is very light, being composed of bone struts filled with spongy tissue between them. The large bill of the toucan is a highly efficient thermoregulation system. Also, it allows the bird to reach deep into treeholes to access food (they eat mostly fruit) unavailable to other birds. The bills of female toucans are usually smaller.

Toucans range in size 29-63 cm. The wings are small, as they are forest-dwelling birds that only need to travel short distances. The legs of a toucan are strong and rather short. The majority of toucans do not show any sexual dimorphism in their coloration. The rear three vertebrae are fused and attached to the spine by a ball and socket joint. Because of this, toucans may snap their tail forwards until it touches the head. This is the posture in which they sleep. They make their nests in tree hollows and holes excavated by other animals.


Genus Andigena
The mountain-toucans are found in humid highland in northern South America. They have brownish-olive backs and black caps.

Toucan, Black-billed Mountain-  Andigena nigrirostris  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela
The Black-billed Mountain-Toucan has brownish-olive upperparts, wings; light blue underparts ; white throat; black bill; yellow orbital skin.
Image by: 1, 2) Columbia Travel - Columbia  3) Nick_Athanas - Ecuador


Toucan, Gray-breasted Mountain-  Andigena hypoglauca  Found: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru
The Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan has brownish-olive upperparts, wings; black cap; blue-gray underparts; bluish-gray hind collar; black orbital skin; yellow rump; red undertail coverts. The bill has a black band near the base on a yellow-green background; red nearer the tip.
Image by: 1) Gossipguy  2, 3) Nick_Athanas - Peru


Toucan,_Hooded_Mountain-  Andigena cucullata  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Hooded Mountain-Toucan has chestnut upper-back fading to green and yellow; blackish head; bare blue skin around eyes; blue nape patch; greenish-yellow bill with black tip; dark blue-green underparts with chestnut in vent.
Image by: 1) John_Gould  2) Rudiger_Stehn


Toucan, Plate-billed Mountain-  Andigena laminirostris  Found: Ecuador, Columbia
The Plate-billed Mountain-Toucan has brownish-olive upperparts, wings; blue underparts with yellow flanks; black crown and nape; black bill with rectangular ivory patch near base of upper mandible; yellow rump; yellow skin below eye; yellow-green skin above eye.
Image by: 1) Nathan Rupert  2) Ben Tavener - Ecuador  3, 4) Jerry Oldenettel - Ecuador  5) Nick_Athanas - Ecuador



Genus Aulacorhynchus
The toucanets are small green toucans.

Toucanet, Blue-banded   Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis  Found: Bolivia, Peru
The Blue-banded Toucanet has mainly green plumage; blue breast band; gray bill with lighter tip; white throat.
Similar to: Yellow-browed Toucanet. Yellow-browed Toucanet has white at base of bill; Blue-banded Toucanet does not.
Image by: 1) Orbigny  2) Carol Foil - Peru  3) Bill Lynch - Peru  4) Nick_Athanas - Peru


Toucanet,_Chestnut-tipped Aulacorhynchus derbianus  Found: southernmost Colombia to Bolivia
The Chestnut-tipped Toucanet has mainly green plumage; black bill with varying amounts of red; red-tipped tail (most subspecies).
Image by: 1) Nick_Athanas - Ecuador


Toucanet, Crimson-rumped  Aulacorhynchus haematopygus  Found: South America
The Crimson-rumped Toucanet has mainly green plumage; red rump; black bill with reddish stripe; white at base of bill; pink bare skin around eye; green throat; bluish breast. It is found in Ecuador, Columbia, Venezuela.
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - San Diego Zoo  2) Sandy Cole - San Diego Zoo  3) Tobias - Walsrode Bird Park, Germany 4) Nick_Athanas - Ecuador


Toucanet, Emerald  Aulacorhynchus prasinus  Found: South America
The Emerald Toucanet has mainly green plumage. Subspecies can be identified by differences in their bills and the coloration around it. Some of the subspecies may be elevated to species. The nominate subspecies has olive upper manbible; black lower mandible. The Blue-throated Toucanet has yellowish-olve upper mandible; black lower mandible; white at base of bill; blue throat. The Violet-throated Toucanet has a black bill; white at base of bill; violet chin.
Image by: 1) Brian Gratwicke - Honduras 2) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  3) Jerry Kirkhart - Belize Zoo  4) Julian Londono - Columbia

Toucanet, Emerald (Andean) A. p. albivitta Found : northern South America
Image: 1) Nick_Athanas - Columbia

Toucanet, Emerald (Blue-throated)  A. p. caeruleogularis  also Aulacorhynchus caeruleogulariss Found : Costa Rica, Panama
Image: 1) Doug Greenberg - Costa Rica  2) Scot Ableman - Costa Rica   3) Tim Lenz - Costa Rica  4) Nick_Athanas - Costa Rica

Toucanet,_Emerald (Gray-throated) A. p. griseigularis  Found : Columbia
Image: 1) Nick_Athanas

Toucanet,_Emerald (Santa Marta) A. p. lautus Found : Santa Marta mountains of northeast Columbia)
Image: 1) Nick_Athanas

Toucanet, Emerald (Violet-throated)  A. p. cyanolaemus  also Aulacorhynchus cyanolaemus Found : Ecuador, Peru
Image: 1) Jose Loiza - Ecuador


Toucanet, Groove-billed  Aulacorhynchus sulcatus  Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The Groove-billed Toucanet has mainly green plumage; grooved bill; thin white border at base of bill; blue below eye; dark gray skin around eye; light colored chin. The Yellow-billed Toucanet subspecies ( ) has mainly yellow on the upper mandible.
Image by: 1, 3) Barloventomagico - Venezuela  2) Cristobal Minic - Venezuela
3) Yellow-billed Toucantet.


Toucanet, Yellow-browed  Aulacorhynchus huallagae  Found: Peru
The Yellow-browed Toucanet has mainly green plumage; yellow supercilium, undertail coverts; white throat; white at base of bill; bill black varies to light gray towards tip; blue breast band.
Similar to: Blue-banded Toucanet. Yellow-browed Toucanet has white at base of bill; Blue-banded Toucanet does not.
Image by:   Gossipguy



Genus Pteroglossus
The aracaris are brightly colored and have large bills that can often an identifying feature.

Aracari, Black-necked Pteroglossus aracari  Found: South America 
The Black-necked Aracari has a black hood; dark brown back; yellow underparts with red band; ivory upper mandible; black lower mandible.
Image by: 1) Andrew Newberry 2) Sharib4rd - Jacksonville Zoo  3) Barloventomagico - Caracas Zoo   1) Nick_Athanas - Venezuela


Aracari, Chestnut-eared  Pteroglossus castanotis  Found: South America 
The Chestnut-eared Aracari has a black head ( dark chestnut colored "ears" usually not visible); black throat, bib; yellow underparts with red belt. Some subspecies have chestnut colored head.
Image by: 1) en VPrat  2) Jose Cajacuri  3) Nick_Athanas - Brazil


Aracari, Collared  Pteroglossus torquatus  Found: Mexico, Central America, northern South America 
The Collared Aracari has (difficult  to see) reddish collar on hind neck; light colored upper mandible with dark tip; black lower mandible; white bordered base of bill; black hood; yellow eyes; yellow underparts with dark belt; often black patch on breast.
Image by: 1) Lauri Vain - Honduras  2) Dennis Jarvis - Belize  3) Hans Hillewaert - Costa Rica  4) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica   5) Nick_Athanas - Panama, Ecuador, Columbia, Columbia
5) P. t. Torquatus   6) Pale-mandibled P. t. erythropygius  7) Stripe-billed P. t. sanguineus  8) P. t. nuchalis



Aracari, Curl-crested  Pteroglossus beauharnaesii  Found: South America
The Curl-crested Aracari has a black curl-like head with white freckles; white face with small black freckles; yellowish-white throat with possible freckles; yellow underparts with red belt. It is found in Peru, Bolivia, Brazil.
Image by: 1) Lonnie Huffman - Columbia, South Carolina Zoo  2, 3, 4) Dick Daniels - San Diego Zoo 


Aracari, Fiery-billed  Pteroglossus frantzii  Found: Costa Rica, Panama
The Fiery-billed Aracari has an orange-red upper mandible; blackish lower mandible; black head, throat; yellow breast with dark spot; red belt; yellow belly.
Similar to: Pale-Mandibled Aracari. Fiery-billed Aracari has red belt; Pale-Mandibled Aracari has black belt.
Image by: 1) Andrew Mace  2) Alison Le Garec - Costa Rica 3) Charlie Westerinen - south central Costa Rica  4) Nick_Athanas - Costa Rica


Aracari, Green  Pteroglossus viridis  Found: South America
The Green Aracari has  a green back; black (male) or dark reddish-brown (female) hood; pale yellow underparts;
Image by: 1) Tanalso Juuyoh  2) Dick Daniels - Zoo Miami  2) Sandy Cole - Birds of Eden, South Africa  4) Nick_Athanas - Venezuela


Aracari, Ivory-billed    Pteroglossus azara  Found: South America
The Ivory-billed Aracari has an ivory colored bill; brown upperparts; dark brown head; red upper-breast band; black lower-breast band; yellow belly; red rump. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Image by: 1) digitalART2 - Philadelphia Mcneil Avian Center  2) Valerie - Mcneil Avian Center    3, 4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - San Diego Zoo



Aracari, Lettered  Pteroglossus inscriptus  Found: South America
The Lettered Aracari has yellow underparts; black head (male) or dark brown (female); blue bare skin around eyes. One subspecies has plain yellowiish upper mandible; dark lower mandible. Another subspecies has mainly yellow bill with dark "teeth"; lower mandible has some black near base. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Bart van Dorp - Brazil  3) Nick_Athana - Columbia


Aracari, Many-banded  Pteroglossus pluricinctus  Found: South America
The Many-banded Aracari has two bands on yellow underparts; blue bare skin around eyes; black hood, lower mandible; yellowish uppermandible with black top. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Image by: 1) Patty McGann  2) Carol Foil - Ecuador  3) Vince Smith - Ecudaor  4) Nick_Athana -Ecuador


Aracari, Pale-mandibled   Pteroglossus erythropygius  Found: South America
The Pale-mandibled Aracari has red skin around eye; red rump; yellow underparts with black breast spot and black belt; mainly pale bill.
Similar to: Fiery-billed Aracari. Fiery-billed Aracari has red belt; Pale-Mandibled Aracari has black belt.
Image by: 1) Mark Watson - Ecuador  2) Steve Carlton - Dallas World Aquarium


Aracari, Red-necked  Pteroglossus bitorquatus  Found: Bolivia, Brazil
The Red-necked Aracari has a red upperback, rear of neck; black head, throat; white narrow frontal collar; red breast; yellow belly.
Image by: 1) Jorge Montejo - Brazil  2) Amy McAndrews - Brazil  3) Nick_Athanas - Brazil


Toucanet, Saffron  Pteroglossus bailloni  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
The Saffron Toucanet has orange-yellow (saffron) head, shoulders; olive back, tail; greenish-yellow underparts; red rump, ocular skin; greenish-yellow bill with some red near base; yellow eye.
Image by: 1, 2) Claudio Timm  3) Rick Elis Simpson  3) Nick_Athanas - Brazil



Genus Ramphastos
These toucans all have black wings, tails, and thighs. They mainly eat fruit but will eat insects and small prey. These toucans are larger than the toucanets.

Toucan, Channel-billed Ramphastos vitellinusFound: South America
The Channel-billed Toucan has dark upperparts, crown, nape; white face; white bib with probable yellow area; black belly; red breast-belly border; blue feet, skin around the eye. The bill has mainly black or reddish-brown color; blue base of lower mandible; blue or yellow base of upper mandible.
Similar to: White-throated Toucan. Channel-billed Toucan and White-throated Toucan almost identical. White-thoated Tucan has proportially larger bill.
Image by: 1) Arjan Haverkamp  2) Alfonso Jr  3) Kevin Watts  4) Sandy Cole - World of Birds, South Africa  5) Nick_Athanas - Brazil
5) Ramphastos vitellinus ariel


Toucan,_Black-mandibled also Yellow-throated Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus Found: southern Columbia to eastern Peru, Venzuela
The Black-mandibled Toucan has mainly black plumage; yellow face, bib; creamy rump; scarlet anal area; lemon yellow upper bill;  blackish lower bill becoming brown close to base.
Similar to: Chestnut-manbiled Toucan. Range of Chestnut-mandibled Toucan and Black-mandibled Toucan do not overlap. They used to be considered the same species.
Image by: 1) Hectonichus - Bronx Zoo  2) Gennaro_Pascale - Venezuela


Toucan, Chestnut-mandibled  Ramphastos swainsonii  Found: Hondoras to Columbia, Venezuela
Chestnut-mandibled Toucan has mainly black plumage; yellow face, bib; white uppertail coverts; red rump; blue legs. Bill has yellow above and dark chestnut below, colors diagonally separated. It is found from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia to western Ecuador.
Similar to: Black-manbiled Toucan. Range of Chestnut-mandibled Toucan and Black-mandibled Toucan do not overlap. They used to be considered the same species.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rica  2) Dick Daniels - Jungle Island, Miami    3) Dick - Summit Zoo, Panama    4) Chuck624 - Costa Rica  5) Michael and Helen Cox - Costa Rica



Toucan,_Choco Ramphastos brevis  Found: Columbia, Ecuador
Image by: 1) Nick_Athanas  2) Patty_McGann


Toucan, Keel-billed  Ramphastos sulfuratus  Found: South America
The Keel-billed Toucan has mainly black plumage; yellow face, bib; white uppertail coverts; red rump; blue legs; mainly green bill with red tip and orange sides. It is found from southern Mexico to Columbia and Venezuela.
Image by: 1) Donar Reiskoffer - La Pumas Zoo, Guanacaste, Costa Rica  2) Sandy Cole - National Aviary      3, 4) Dick Daniels - National Aviary 


Toucan, Red-breasted  also Green-billed Toucan  Ramphastos dicolorus  Found: South America
The Red-breasted Toucan has black upperparts; yellow throat, upper breast; red lower breast; belly, skin around eye; green bill with black near base.
Image by: 1) George Shepherd  2) Gareth Christopher   3) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil 


Toucan, Toco  Ramphastos toco  Found: South America
The Toco Toucan has black upperparts; white throat, upper breast; black lower breast, belly; yellow-orange bill with black base and large spot near tip.
Image by: 1) Daph Chloe  2) Dick Daniels - Bronx Zoo  3) Thomas Hermes - Vogelpark Walsrode, Walsrode, Germany     4) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  5) Nick_Athanas



Toucan, White-throated  Ramphastos tucanus  Found: South America
The White-throated Toucan has dark upperparts, crown, nape; white face, bib; black belly; red breast-belly border; blue feet, skin around the eye. The bill has mainly black or reddish-brown color; blue base of lower mandible; yellow base of upper mandible.
Similar to: Channel-billed Toucan. Channel-billed Toucan and White-throated Toucan almost identical. White-thoated Tucan has proportially larger bill.
Image by: 1) Cburnett  2) Steve Stevens  3) Anagoria - Venezuela   4) Nick_Athanas- Venezuela



Genus Selenidera
These toucanets are found in rainforests of South America with the Yellow-eared Toucanet also found in Central America. All of the species have green upperparts and red under-tail coverts. All male have a black cap, nape, throat, breast. They also have an orange or yellow stripe behind the eye.  Females resemble the males, but may have black replaced by reddish-brown or gray in the case of the Guianan Toucanet.

Toucanet, Golden-collared  Selenidera reinwardtii  Found: South America
The Golden-collared Toucanet has green back, tail; yellow ear coverts extending to golden hind-collar. The bill is broadly black tipped with a brownish-red base or a bluish-gray base. Male has black cap; black underparts with yellow flanks. Female has chestnut cap; chestnut underparts with yellow flanks. It is found in the western Amazon rainforest.
Image by: 1, 3) Nick_Athanas - Ecuador  2) Jim Davies
1) Female 2, 3) Male


Toucanet, Gould's  Selenidera gouldi  Found: South America
Similar to: Spot-billed Toucanet. The Gould's Toucanet has a black bill; Spot-billed Toucanet has gray bill.
Image by: 1) Nick_Athanas - Brazil

Toucanet, Guianan  Selenidera culik  Found: northern South America
The Guianan Toucanet has green back, tail; red undertail coverts; dark bill with dark red near the base; yellow ear coverts; orange hind-collar. Male has black cap; black underparts with lighter flanks. Female has dark cap; gray underparts with lighter flanks. It is found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela.
Image by: 1) Manjith Kainickara  2, 3) Brandi Korte
1) Male


Toucanet, Spot-billed  Selenidera maculirostris  Found: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
The Spot-billed Toucanet has green back, tail; red undertail coverts; relatively smalll gray bill with large tooth-like dark spots; yellowish hind-collar. Male has black cap; black underparts with yellow flanks; yellow ear coverts. Female has chestnut cap; chestnut underparts with yellow flanks.
Similar to: Gould's Toucanet. The Gould's Toucanet has a black bill; Spot-billed Toucanet has gray bill.
Image by: 1) Marcel Holyoak - Brazil  2) Tude e Joao  3) Gustavo Magnago  4)  Claudia Timm  5) Nick_Athanas - Brazil
1) Pair  2) Female  3, 4, 5) Male


Toucanet,_Tawny-tufted Selenidera nattereri  Found: extreme east Colombia, southern Venezuela, northwest Brazil
The male Tawny-tufted Toucanet has mainly green upperparts; yellow cheeks, rump; black underpart. Female similar to male but black replaced by rufous.
Image by: 1) Nick_Athanas - Columbia  2) Joseph_del_Hoyo
1, 2) Male


Toucanet,_Tepui Aulacorhynchus whitelianus  Found: Andes of western South America and Guian
The Tepui Toucanet has mainly green plumage; black bill with varying amounts of red; sometimes red-tipped tail.
Image by: 1) Thiago_Laranjeiras


Toucanet, Yellow-eared  Selenidera spectabilis  Found: Central America to northwest Ecuador
The Yellow-eared Toucanet has green back, tail; red undertail coverts; dark bill with dark red near the base; black underparts with yellow flanks; yellow ocular skin. Male has yellow ear covert; black cap. Female has chestnut cap.
Image by: 1, 4) HarmonyOnPlanetEarth - Panama  2) Cathie Barren  3) Nick_Athanas - C0sta Rica
1, 2, 3) Female  4) Male





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