New World WARBLERs

Order Passeriformes    Family Parulidae


The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, song birds. They are not related to the Old World warblers (Sylviidae) or the Australian warblers. Most are arboreal and insectivores. They very in size from 10 to 15 cm and have short and quite slender bills.


Genus Basileuterus
Mainly robust warblers with a stout bill. The majority of species have olive or gray upperparts and yellow underparts. The head is often strikingly marked with a long broad supercilium, a colored crown or crown stripes, and often other striking head markings. They are found from southwestern United States to South America.

Warbler, Fan-tailed  Basileuterus lachrymosus  Found: northern Mexico to Nicaragua  Rarely: southwest USA
The Fan-tailed Warbler has gray upperparts; black- framed yellow crown streak; white lores; white behind the eyes; white tipped tail; brownish-red underparts.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico 


Warbler, Golden-browed  Basileuterus belli  Found: Mexico, Central America
Image by: 1) Francesco Veronesi - Mexico   2) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  3) Benjamin Clock


Warbler, Golden-crowned  Basileuterus culicivorus  Rare: USA (Texas), Mexico.  Found: Central America, South America
The Golden-crowned Warbler has gray-green upperparts,bright yellow underparts, gray head with a black-bordered yellow crown stripe, yellow supercilium,black eyestripe.
Image by: 1, 2, 3, 4) Dario Sanches - Brazil


Warbler, Rufous-capped   Basileuterus rufifrons  Rare: USA (Arizona, Texas), South America (Venezuela).  Found: Central America
The Rufous-capped Warber's has olive to olive-gray upperparts, bright yellow chests and throats, white belly, rufous cap, white superciliary, a dark eye-line, and a white malar marking. The bill is rather stout for a warbler.
Similar to: Yellow-breasted Chat. Rufous-capped Warbler has white eyebrow; Yellow-breasted Chat has white eye-ring.
Image by: 1, 2) Dominic Sherony  3) Seabamirum - Florida Canyon, Arizona  4) Francesco Veronesi - El Valle Panama



Genus Cardellina
These warblers are found mainly in North American and Central America, with the Canada Warbler exteneding to northern South America.

Warbler, Canada   Cardellina canadensis   Found: eastern North America to northern South America
The Canada Warbler has blue-gray upperparts, yellow underparts, yellowish eye-rings, pink legs. Adult males have black foreheads and black necklaces. Females and immatures have faint grey necklaces.
Image by: 1, 3)  William Majoros  2) José Loaizan - Ecuador  4) Emmett Hume   5) Merv Cormier  6) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania 
1, 2) Male  3, 4, 5, 6) Female

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Warbler, Pink-headed Cardellina versicolor  Found: Mexico to Guatemala
The Pink-headed Warbler is primarily red, with a silvery-pink head and chest. It is a fairly common to common resident of humid to semi-humid pine-oak, pine-evergreen and evergreen forest and edge,
Image by: 1) Jospeh Wolf  2) Dominic Sherony


Warbler, Red  Cardellina rubra  Found: Mexico
The adult Red Werbler is bright red, with a white or gray ear patch, depending on the subspecies; young birds are pinkish-brown, with a whitish ear patch and two pale wingbars. There are three subspecies, found in disjunct populations, which differ primarily in the color of their ear patch and in the brightness and tone of their body plumage.
Image by: 1, 3) Dominic Sherony  2) Amy McAndrews - Sierra de Miahuatlan, Oaxaca


Warbler, Red-faced   Cardellina rubrifrons   Found: USA (Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico, to Honduras
The Red-faced Warbler has light gray upperparts, white underparts; gray or white between back and head, black crown and sides of head, red face, neck and upper breast.
Image by: Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  2) Dominic Sherony


Warbler, Wilson's  Cardellina pusilla  Found: North America to Panama
The Wilson's Warbler is greenish above and yellow below, with rounded wings and a long, slim tail. The male has a black crown patch; depending on the subspecies, that mark is reduced or absent in the female.
Similar to: Yellow Warbler. Yellow Warbler has yellow edges to the wings which distinguishes it from female Wilson's Warbler.
Image by: 1, 2) Dick Daniels - New Jersey  3) Jean-Guy Dallaire  3) Micheal Woodruff - Washington  Greg7 - Vancouver, Canada    4) Chepas - Quebec, Canada
1, 2) Juvenile  3) Female  4, 5, 6) Male




Genus Geothlypis
All the yellowthroats have similar plumage, with yellow-green upperparts, yellow breast, and a mainly black bill. The adult male has a black facemask of variable extent, usually bordered above with a grey band. The female is similar, but lacks the black mask, and may be duller in plumage. The breeding habitat of these warblers is typically marshes and other wet areas with dense low vegetation.

Warbler, Kentucky   Geothlypis formosa   Found: Eastern United States to northwest South America
The Kentucky Warbler's has olive-green back and nape, yellow underparts, tinge of black on head,black spectacle-like pattern near the eyes. Female Kentucky warblers have slightly less black on the sides of their head, and immature birds may have almost no black at all.
Image by: 1) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexica  2) Ander Peltomaa - New York 3) Steve Maslowski, USFWS 


Warbler, MacGillivray's   Geothlypis tolmiei  Found: west North America to Panama
The MacGillivray's Warbler has dull yellow belly, white eye-arcs. Male has dark head and breast. Female has and immature birds have light gray head, throat and upper breast.
Similar to: Connecticut Warbler, Mourning Warbler. Connecticut Warbler has white-eye rings, MacGillivray's Warbler has white eye-arcs, Mourning Warbler has faint white eye-rings. Juvenile MacGillvray's and Mourning Warblers are very similar.
Image by: 1, 2, 4) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico   3) Sarah Beckwith of the National Park Service -New Mexico   5) David Hofmann - California  6) Willapalens - Washington  7) Sean McCann - British Columbia
1, 2, 3) Female  4 - 7) Male



Warbler, Mourning Geothlypis philadelphia Found: southeast Canada to northwest South America
The Mourning Warbler has yellow underparts, olive-green upperparts and pink legs. Adult males have a gray hood, black patch on throat and breast. Females and immatures have gray-brown on head, incomplete eye-ring.
Similar to: Connecticut Warbler, MacGillivray's Warbler. Connecticut Warbler has white-eye rings, MacGillivray's Warbler has white eye-arcs, Mourning Warbler has faint white eye-rings. Juvenile MacGillvray's and Mourning Warblers are very similar.
Image by: 1)  Seabamirum   2) Ryan Doherty
1) Female  2) Male


Yellowthroat, Altamira  Geothlypis flavovelata  Found: northeastern Mexico
Image by: 1, 2) Jeffery Gordon
1) Female  2) Male


Yellowthroat, Belding's  Geothlypis beldingi  Found: Baja California, Mexico
The Belding's Yellowthroat has an olive-green back. The male G. b. beldingi has yellow underparts, a black facemask and yellow forecrown. The female is similar, but lacks the black mask and has an olive crown. The male G. b.goldmaii has a pale belly and gray forecrown.
Image by: Brian Sullivan - California


Yellowthroat, Black-polled  Geothlypis speciosa  Found: Mexico
The male Black-polled Yellowthroat has brownish-olive upperparts; black side of face; yellow underparts. Female has dark eye-line; no black marks on head.
Image by:  1) John Gerrand Keulemans   2) Dominic Sherony


Yellowthroat, Common   Geothlypis trichas Found: North America
The Common Yellowthroat has an olive back, wings and tail; yellow throat and chest; white belly. Adult males have black face masks which stretch from the sides of the neck across the eyes and forehead, which are bordered above with white or gray. Female and immature birds are similar in appearance, but have paler underparts and lack the black mask.
Similar to: Bahama Yellowthroat. Bahama Yellowthroat is larger and has heavier bill than Common Yellowthroat.
Similar to: Hooded Yellowthoat. The Hooded Yellowthroat has a considerably longer bill than the Common Yellowthroat.
Similar to: Olive-crowned Yellowthoat. The Olive-crowned Yellowthroat has more extensive yellow on the underparts than the Common Yellowthroat.
Image by: 1) John Benson  2, 3) Dick Daniels - Maine  4) New Jersy Birds  5) Teddy Llovet
1, 2, 3) Female   4, 5) Male



Yellowthroat, Gray-crowned   Geothlypis poliocephala Rare: United States.  Found: Mexico, Central America
Similar to: Masked Yellowthroat. Male Masked Yellowthroat has black behind the eye, male Gray-crowned Yellowthroat does not. Female Masked has yellow eye-ring, female Gray-crowned does not.
Image by: 1) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  2) John Norton - Belize  3)  Jerry Oldenettel - Belize


Yellowthroat, Hooded  Geothlypis nelsoni  Found: Mexico
The male Hooded Yellowthroat has a has an olive back, wings and tail; yellow throat. Adult males have black face masks which stretch from the sides of the neck across the eyes and forehead, Female and immature birds are similar in appearance, but have paler underparts and lack the black mask.
Similar to: Common Yellowthoat. The Hooded Yellowthroat has a considerably longer bill than the Common Yellowthroat.
Similar to: Olive-crowned Yellowthoat. The Olive-crowned Yellowthroat has more extensive yellow on the underparts than the Hooded Yellowthroat.
Image by: Amy McAndrews - Mexico


Yellowthroat, Olive-crowned  Geothlypis semiflava  Found: Mexico to southwest South America
The male Olive-crowned Yellowthoat has an olive back, wings and tail; yellow underparts. Adult males have black face masks which stretch from the sides of the neck across the eyes and forehead, Female and immature birds are similar in appearance, but lack the black mask.
It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Similar to: Common Yellowthoat. The Olive-crowned Yellowthroat has more extensive yellow on the underparts than the Common Yellowthroat.
Similar to: Hooded Yellowthoat. The Olive-crowned Yellowthroat has more extensive yellow on the underparts than the Hooded Yellowthroat.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony   2) Don Faulkner - Coast Rica



Genus Helmitheros - 1 species

Warbler, Worm-eating   Helmitheros vermivorum   Rare: South America (Columbia, Venezuela).  Found: North America, Central America
The Worm-eating Warbler has olive-brown upperparts, light-colored underparts, black and light brown stripes on the head, slim pointed bill, pink legs. In immature birds, the head stripes are brownish.
Similar to: Swainson's Warbler. Worm-eating Warbler has darker eye-stripes and also has a stripe on its head while Swainson's Warbler has no stripe on its head.
Image by: 1) Tom Friedel - Florida  2) Jay Bass   3) Jerry Oldenettel - Texas



Genus Icteria - 1 species

Chat, Yellow-breasted  Icteria virens  Found: North America and Central America
The Yellow-breasted Chat has olive upperpart, white belly, bright yellow throat and breast, white eye-rings, blackish legs. It is the largest member of the Parulidae family and may not belong in that family.
Similar to: Rufous-capped Warbler. Rufous-capped Warbler has white eyebrow; Yellow-breasted Chat has white eye-ring.
Similar to: Yellow-throated Vireo. Yellow-throated Vireo has yellow eye-rings and wingbars; Yellow-breasted Chat has white eye-rings and no wingbars.
Image by: 1) Maggie Smith - Pennsylvania  2) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  3 )John Breitsch - Colorado   4) Christine Fournier - Virginia
1) Juvenile



Genus Limnothlypis - 1 species

Warbler, Swainson's   Limnothlypis swainsonii   Found: southeast United States to Guatemala; West Indies
The Swainson's Warbler has olive-brown upperparts, pale yellow-white underparts, rusty brown head, whitish eyebrow stripe.
Similar to: Worm-eating Warbler. Worm-eating Warbler has darker eye-stripes and also has a stripe on its head while Swainson's Warbler has no stripe on its head.
Image by: 1) Andy Jones - South Carolina   2) Carol Foil - Louisiana



Genus Mniotilta - 1 species

Warbler, Black-and-white Mniotilta varia Found: North America, northwest South America, Venezuela
The Black-and-white Warbler has black and white stripes, bolder on the male.
Image by:  1) Jeremy Meyer  2) Mr T. in DC - Washington, DC  3) Dick Daniels - New Hampshire 4) New Jersey Birds  5) Cephas 
1, 2, 3) Female  4, 5) Male




Genus Myioborus
The name whitestart refers to the white outer tail feathers which are a prominent feature of the members of this genus (“start” is an archaic word for “tail”). They are sometimes named as “redstarts”, but other unrelated species use this name also. The whitestarts are centered in northern South America with some being found in Central America (even into USA) and others as far south as northwestern Argenina. They prefer wooded areas.

Whitestart, Painted also Painted Redstart Myioborus pictus  Found: southwest United States to Nicaragua
The Painted Whitestart has black back, head, and upper breast; bright red lower breast, belly; large white wing patches, white crescents below eyes; blackish bill and legs. Juvenile is brownish-gray overall, with a paler belly and undertail coverts, and a pale cream or buff tinge to its wing patches.
Similar to: White-throated Whitestart. The White-throated Whitestart lacks the Painted Whitestart's white wing patch.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony   2) Marcel Holyoak - California  3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico


Whitestart, Slate-throated also Slate-throated Redstart  Myioborus miniatus  Found: Mexico, Central America, South America
The Slate-throated Whitestart has slate-gray upperparts, head, throat; yellow underparts; white under tail; black bill, legs.
Similar to: Painted Whitestart. The White-throated Whitestart lacks the Painted Whitestart's white wing patch.
Image by: 1) Brian Ralphs - Tilarán, Guanacaste, Costa Rica  2, 3) Dominic Sherony    4) Dick Daniels - Peru  5) Benjamin Keen - Costa Rica  6) Steve Ryan - Costa Rica




Genus Oporornis - 1 species

Warbler, Connecticut  Oporornis agilis   Found: The Americas
The Connecticut Warbler has light yellow underparts, olive upperparts; whitish eye-ring, pink legs, long tail, pale wing bars, thin pointed bill. Males have a grey hood; female and immatures are more brown and have a whitish throat.
Similar to: MacGillivray's Warbler, Mourning Warbler. Connecticut Warbler has white-eye rings, MacGillivray's Warbler has white eye-arcs, Mourning Warbler has faint white eye-rings.
Image by: 1) Stylurus - Michigan   2) Peter Crosson  3) Matt Tillett - Maryland 
1) Juvenile



Genus Oreothlypis
These warblers are found from the USA to northwest South America

Warbler, Colima   Oreothlypis crissalis  Found: Texas, Mexico
The Colima Warbler has gray to brownish upperparts, pale underparts, white eye-rings, yellow rump and feathers below tail' Males have a spot of orange on the top of their heads.
Similar to: Lucy's Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Virginia's Warbler. All have white eye-rings. Nashville Warbler is the only one that has a yellow belly and also the only species found east of the Mississippi River. Lucy's Warbler is the only one with white undertail coverts (behind the belly). Adult Virginia's Warblers have yellow on their breasts, not true for Lucy's.
Image by: Photo needed

Warbler, Crescent-chested  Oreothlypis superciliosa  Found: northern Mexico to northern Nicaragua
The male Crescent-Chested Warbler has  a chesnut crest on its chest; the female may have a faint crest there. Both sexes have a greenish back; gray head, wings, tail; white supercilium; yellowish throat, breast; whitish belly.
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Amy McAndrews - Mexico


Warbler, Lucy's   Oreothlypis luciae  Found: southwest United States, Mexico
The Lucy's Warbler has pale gray upperparts, whitish underparts, white eye-ring, small pointed bill, rufous rump, Adult males also have a small rusty patch on their crown.
Similar to: Colima Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Virginia's Warbler. All have white eye-rings. Nashville Warbler is the only one that has a yellow belly and also the only species found east of the Mississippi River. Lucy's Warbler is the only one with white undertail coverts (behind the belly). Adult Virginia's Warblers have yellow on their breasts, not true for Lucy's.
Image by:  1) Dominic Sherony  2) Dan Irizarry - Arizona  3) Maggie Smith


Warbler, Nashville  Oreothlypis ruficapilla  Found: North America
The Nashville Warbler has olive-brown upperparts, white belly, yellow throat and breast,white eye ring, no wing bars and a thin pointed bill. Adult males have a grey head with a rusty crown patch (often not visible); females and immature birds have a duller olive-grey head.
Similar to: Colima Warbler, Lucy's Warbler, Virginia's Warbler. All have white eye-rings. Nashville Warbler is the only one that has a yellow belly and also the only species found east of the Mississippi River. Lucy's Warbler is the only one with white undertail coverts (behind the belly). Adult Virginia's Warblers have yellow on their breasts, not true for Lucy's.
Image by:1) Ken Schneider - Kane County, Illinois  2) Bill Majoros - Lak Erie  3) Frank Lospalluto - Oregon  4)Dominic Sherony 


Warbler, Orange-crowned  Oreothlypis celata  Found: North America to Guatemala, Bahamas
The Orange-crowned Warbler has olive-grey upperparts, yellowish underparts with faint streaking, a thin pointed bill, faint line over eyes, faint broken eye-arcs. Females and immatures are duller in colour than males. Western birds are yellower than eastern birds.
Similar to: Tennessee Warbler.
Image by: 1) USFWS   2) Dan Pancamo - Texas   3) Dick Daniels - Palmer, Alaska  4) Bhardwaj Shanthanu - Chicago, Illinois  5) Linda Tanner  6, 8) Alan Vernon - California    7) Rich Leche  
1, 2, 3, 4) Juvenile


Warbler, Tennesse  Oreothlypis peregrina  Found: North America to northwest South America
The Tennesse Warbler has olive-green back, gray neck, crown and eyeline; gray-white underside, thin pointy bill. The female is similar to the male, but is duller and has a greener tinge to the underside.
Similar to: Orange-crowned Warbler, Black-throated Blue Warbler.
Image by:  1) Don Faulkner - South Carolina   2) Dominic Sherony  3) Jerry Oldenettel - Costa Rico  4)  Gary Yankech - Toronto 
1) Juvenile  2) Female  3, 4) Male


Warbler, Virginia's   Oreothlypis virginiae  Found: southwest United States, Mexico
Virginia' Warbler has gray upperparts, lighter underparts, white eye-ring, yellow rump and undertail. Male has yellow patch on breast.
Similar to: Colima Warbler, Lucy's Warbler, Nashville Warbler. All have white eye-rings. Nashville Warbler is the only one that has a yellow belly and also the only species found east of the Mississippi River. Lucy's Warbler is the only one with white undertail coverts (behind the belly). Adult male Virginia's Warblers have yellow on their breasts, not true for Lucy's.
Image by: 1, 4) Sabine's Sunbird - off San Franciso coast  2) Marcel Holyoak - Arizona  3)Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico
1) Female  2, 3) Male  4) Nashville Warbler on left, Virginia's Warbler on right



Genus Parkesia
The waterthrush genus used to also contain the Ovenbird.

Waterthrush, Louisiana  Parkesia motacilla  Found: east North America to northwest South America, West Indies
The Louisiana Waterthrush has brown back, white underparts streaked with brown to black, white supercilium, and pink legs.
Similar to: Northern Waterthrush. Only subtle differences between the Louisiana Waterthrush and the Northern Waterthush so identification is problematic.
Similar to: Ovenbird. Ovenbird has white eye-ring; Waterthush has dark eye-line.
Image by: 1) Louis Agassiz Fuertes   2) William H. Majoros


Waterthrush, Northern Parkesia noveboracensis Found: North America to north South America, West Indies
Similar to: Louisiana Waterthrush. Only subtle differences between the Louisiana Waterthrush and the Northern Waterthush so identification is problematic.
Similar to: Ovenbird. Ovenbird has white eye-ring; Waterthush has dark eye-line.
Image by: 1) Laura Gooch  2) Cephas  3) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania   4) Dick Daniels - Jamaica   5) Dick - Quito, Ecuador




Genus Protonotaria - 1 species

Warbler, Prothonotary Protonotaria citrea Found: east North America to northwest South America
The Prothonotary Warbler has an olive back, blue-grey wings and tail, yellow underparts, a relatively long pointed bill and black legs. The adult male has a bright orange-yellow head; females and are duller and have a yellow head
Image by: 1) Curtzsi  2, 3, 4) Dick Daniels - the Carolinas



Genus Seiurus - 1 species

Ovenbird  Seiurus aurocapilla  Found: North America, north South America
The Ovenbird has olive-brown upperparts, white underparts heavily streaked with black, white eye-ring, black stripe below the cheek, orange feathers with olive-green tips on top of their head bordered on each side with blackish-brown,  dark eyes, pinkish legs.  The name comes from the oven-like nests that are created.
Similar to: Louisiana Waterthrush, Northern Waterthrush. Ovenbird has white eye-ring; Waterthush has dark eye-line.
Similar to: Wood Thrush. Ovenbird has stripes on breast; Wood Thrush has spots on breast.
Image by: 1)  Dominic Sherony   2) New Jersy Birds  3) Dick Daniels - Jamaica  4, 5, 6) Dick - Butterfly World, Florida




Genus Setophaga
Many of these species were formerly in genus Dendroica. The males in breeding plumage are often boldly marked,

Parula, Northern  Setophaga americana   Found: east North America to Nicaragua, West Indies
The Northern Parula has mainly blue-gray upperparts with a greenish back patch, two white wing bars, yellowish breast, white belly, white eye crescents. Summer male has bluish and rufous breast bands, female lacks breast bands. Non breeding birds are duller.
Similar to: Tropical Parula. Northern Parula has white eye-arcs, Tropical Parula does not.
Image by: 1, 2) Dan Pamaco - Texas  3) New Jersy Birds   4) Dick Daniels - North Carolina  
1) Male  2, 3, 4) Female


Parula, Tropical  Setophaga pitiayumi   Found: southwest United States to South America
The Tropical Parula has a greenish back patch, two white wingbars, yellowish underparts, The male has a black patch from the bill to behind the eye. Females are slightly duller than the males and lack black on the head.
Similar to: Northern Parula. Northern Parula has white eye-arcs, Tropical Parula does not.
Image by: 1) Dario Sanches - Brazil  2, 3) Cláudio Timm - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


Redstart, American  Setophaga ruticilla Found: North America, north South America, West Indies
The male American Redstart has blue-black back, head, throat and breast; orange breast sides, white belly. The female has gray head, gray to green back, gray head, white underparts, yellow breast sides.
Image by:   1, 2) Dick Daniels - New Jersey   3, 4) Dick - Jamaica   5) Dan Pancamo  6) Dominic Sherony 
1 - 4) Female 5, 6) Male


Warbler, Bay-breasted   Setophaga castanea  Found: North America to southwest South America
The Bay-breasted Warbler has whitish underparts and two white wing-bars. A breeding male has gray back, black face; chestnut crowns, flanks and throats.  A breeding female has grayish upperparts, chestnut markings on small flank patches, Non-breeding birds have greenish heads, greenish upperparts and yellowish breasts.
Similar to: Blackpoll Warbler. Nonbreeding Bay-breasted Warblers and nonbreeding Blackpoll Warblers are similar. The Blackpoll Warbler has stripes on its breast, the Bay-breasted does not.
Image by: 1) Dan Pancamo  2) William Majoros  3)  Mdf - Ontario, Canada   4) Laura Gooch - Ohio
1) Juvenile or female  2) Breeding female  3, 4) Breeding male


Warbler, Blackburnian  Setophaga fusca  Found: The Americas
The Blackburnian Warbler has whitish underparts tinged with yellow and with black stripes; white wing-bars. Breeding male has dark gray back, yellowish rump, dark brown crown, orange yellow sides of head with black face patches, orange throat, wingbars are an indistinct blur. Nonbreeding male has duller sides of head, two distinct wingbars. Breeding female similar to breeding male but less yellow about head and lighter face patches, 2 board wingbars. Nonbreeding female has thinner wingbars.
Image by: 1) Merv Comier    2) Gary Yankech - Toronto   3) Dominic Sherony   4) Petroglyph   5) Mdf - Ontario   6) Dick Daniels - Guango Lodge, Ecuador
1) Juvenile 2, 3) Female 4 - 6) Male



Warbler, Blackpoll  Setophaga striata  Found: The Americas
The Blackpoll Warbler has 2 white wing bars and pink legs. Breeding males have dark-streaked brown backs, white faces, black crowns, white underparts with black streaks. Breeding females resemble washed-out versions of breeding males,Their crowns and faces are shades of gray. Nonbreeding birds have greenish heads, dark-streaked greenish upperparts and yellowish breasts.
Similar to
: Bay-breasted Warbler. Nonbreeding Bay-breasted Warblers and nonbreeding Blackpoll Warblers are similar. The Blackpoll Warbler has stripes on its breast, the Bay-breasted does not.
Image by:   1) Bill Lynch - New Jersey  2) Len Blumin - California  3) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania   4) Cephas - Quebec, Canada  5) Ken Schneider - Florida
1, 2, 3) Nonbreeding  4, 5) Breeding males



Warbler, Black-throated Blue    Setophaga caerulescens   Found: North America, Caribbean
The male Black-throated Blue Warbler has black face and cheeks; deep blue upperpart sides; white underpart center. The female is olive-brown above and light yellow below.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by: 1) Champagne for Monkeys - Nova Scotia   2) Ken Schnieder - Florida   3, 4, 5, 6) Dick Daniels - Jamaica    7) US Fish and Wildlife_Service 8) New Jersy Birds 
1, 2, 3, 4) Female  5. 6. 7. 8) Male  


Warbler, Black-throated Gray  Setophaga nigrescens  Found: North America
The Black-throated Gray Warbler has gray back, white underparts, yellow square in front of eye, black crown stripe, white stripe above the eye, black stripe below the eye, then more white. The male has a black throat.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler,Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony  2, 3) Matt Knoth


Warbler, Black-throated Green Setophaga virens Found: The Americas
The Black-throated Green Warbler has olive-green crown, yellow face with olive markings, thin pointed bill, 2 white wing bars, olive-green back, pale underparts with black streaks on the flanks. Male has a black throat and upper breast. Female has pale throat and black markings on their breast.
Similar to
: Golden-cheeked Warbler. Black-throated Green has a green back, Golden-cheeked has a black back (except the juvenile has a green back).
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by:  1) Vicki DeLoache - Georgia  2) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico  3, 4) Dan Pancamo     5) Amy McAndrews - Mexico  6) Dick Daniels - Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina
1) Male 1, 2, 3) Female 4) Male



Warbler, Cape May  Setophaga tigrina  Found: The Americas
The Cape May Warbler has brown back, yellow underparts with black streaks, yellowish rump, brown crown, yellow throat and nape, black eye-line, narrow white wing bar. The breeding male has a distinctive chestnut eye mark.
Similar to: Blackburnian Warbler. The difference is relatively obvious.
Similar to: Palm Warbler. Cape May Warbler is white under tail, Palm Warbler is yellow.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Blue Mountains, Jamaica   4) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  5) US Fish and Wildlife Service  6) Dominic Sherony  
1, 2, 3, 4) Female  5, 6) Male



Warbler, Cerulean   Setophaga cerulea  Found: North America, north South America
The Cerulean Warbler has 2 wing bars and a thin pointed bill. Adult male has cerulean blue upperparts, white underparts, black necklace across breast, black streaks on back and flanks. Females and immature birds have grayer or greenish upperparts, stripe over the eye, no streaking on the back, no necklace.
Image by: 1) Dan Irizarry- Florida  2) Mdf - Ontario  3)  Chris Livingston - Massachusetts  4) John Harrison - Massachusetts 
1) Female  2, 3, 4) Male


Warbler, Chestnut-sided  Setophaga pensylvanica Found: North America, north South America (occasional)
The Chestnut-sided Warbler has white underparts, green to yellowish crown, white face, 2 white wing bars, dark eyes, dark legs, Breeding male has dark-streaked gray back tinged with yellow, black spot below eye and black eye-stripe, chestnut flanks. Nonbreeding male has white eye-ring, chestnut flanks, no black spot below eye. Female lacks the strong head pattern, have little to no chestnut coloring on their flanks.
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - California   2) Kelly Azar - Delaware   3) Mdf - Ontario  4) Chephas - Quebec   5) Laura Gooch - Tennessee  6) Rick Harris - Ontario  7) William Majoros - Ohio 
1, 2) Juvenile  3) Female  4 - 7) Male



Warbler, Golden-cheeked   Setophaga chrysoparia   Found: southwest United States, Mexico and Central America
The Golden-cheeked Warbler has black back, nape, crown, throat, yellow cheeks, black eye-line.
Similar to: Black-throated Green Warbler. Black-throated Green has a green back, Golden-cheeked has a black back (except the juvenile has a green back).Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by:   1) Steve Maslowski, USFWS  2) Vince Smith - Texas  3) Mike Baranski - Texas


Warbler, Grace's   Setophaga graciae   Found: North America
Grace's Warbler has gray upperparts with black streaks on back and flanks, two white wing bars, yellow throat and breast, white belly, black eye-line; yellow "eyebrow" that fades to white behind the eye.
Similar to Yellow-throated Warbler. Yellow-throated Warbler has more black around its cheek than Grace's Warbler.
Image by: 1)  Marcel Holyoak - Arizona  2, 3) Jerry Oldenettel - New Mexico


Warbler, Hermit   Setophaga occidentalis   Found: west North America to Nicaragua
The Hermit Warbler has dark gray back, 2 white wing bars, yellow head, white underparts. Males have black throats, females have much less black on their throat, immature birds have no black throat.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by: 1) Bill Bouton - California  2) Frode Jacobsen - Oregon  4) Marcel Holyoak - California   4) Amy McAndrews - Mexico
1) 1st fall Female  2, 3) Male  4) Hermit - Townsend's hybrid.


Warbler, Hooded   Setophaga citrina  Found: Eastern USA and Central America
The Hooded Warbler has plain green-brown back, yellow underparts and face. Male has black hood which surrounds the face; female has an olive-green cap which does not extend to the forehead.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by: 1) Vickie DeLoach - Georgia  2) Dawn Scranton  3) Mitchmcc - Florida  4, 5) New Jersy Birds 



Warbler, Kirtland's  Setophaga kirtlandii Found: North America
The Kirtland's Warbler has bluish-brown upper body parts with dark streaks on the back, yellow underparts, streaked flanks, broken white eye rings. Females and juveniles are browner on the back.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony   2, 5) Paul Hurtago - Ohio  Laura Gooch - Ohio  4) Bill Majoros
1, 2) Female  3, 4, 5) Male



Warbler, Magnolia  Setophaga magnolia  Found: North America to Panama
The Magnolia Warbler has gray crown, 2 white wing bars which may merge into white patch, yellow throat. Breeding male has white, gray, and black back, yellow flanks, yellow underparts with bold black stripes, white above and behind eyes, black face mask. Nonbreeding male has geenish back, yellow underparts with faint stipes, no face mask. Females similar to males, but duller coloration.
Similar to: Prairie Warbler. Magnolia Warbler has darker back and tail. Magnolia Warbler also has white wing-bars.
Image by: 1) Vickie Deloache - Georgia  2) Dick Daniels - Franklin, North Carolina     3) Larry Meade - Virginia   4) Bhardwaj Shanthanu - Chicago, Illinois   5)  William Majoros - Ohio  
1, 2) Juvenile    3, 4) Female   5) Male



Warbler, Mangrove  Setophaga (petechia) erithachorides Found: mangrove swamps of coastal Middle America and northern South America
Closely related: Golden Warbler. Considered as Setophaga petechia or subspecies Setophaga petechia petechia.
Closely related: Yellow Warbler. Considered as Setophaga aestiva or subspecies Setophaga petechia aestiva.
Image by: 1) Laura Gooch - Galapagos Islands  2) PutneyMark - Galapagos Islands  3) Dick Daniels - Galapagos Islands
1) Breeding male


Warbler, Palm Setophaga palmarum Found: North America to Nicaragua
The Palm Warbler wags its tail. The Palm Warbler has a brown type and a yellow type. The breeding yellow type has a yellow belly; the breeding brown does not. The nonbreeding yellow type has some yellow on its eyebrow.
Similar to: Prairie Warbler. Adult Prairie Warbler has bolder black stripes on sides than does adult Palm Warbler. Juvenile Prairie Warbler lacks black side stripes and my be confused with the yellow type of nonbreeding Palm Warbler, but juvenile Prairie has more white around the eyes.
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Warbler. Nonbreeding Pine Warbler has eye-line; Yellow-rumped Warbler does not have eye-line.
Image by:   1) Seabamirum - New Jersey   2, 3, 6) Dick Daniels - Florida  4) Dick - North Carolina    5) NeBirdsPlus    7) A Drauglis Furnituremaker - Florida  8) Matthew Hoelscher  9, 10) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania
1, 2, 3, 4) Brown nonbreeding  5, 6) Yellow nonbreedeing  7, 8) Brown breeding  9, 10) Yellow breeding




Warbler, Pine
Setophaga pinus Found: North America, Caribbean
The Pine Warbler has 2 white wing bars. Male has olive upperparts, yellow throat and breast, yellow often extends to upper belly, lower belly is white.  Female has duller coloration and may be grayish brown.
Similar to: Yellow-throated Vireo. The Yellow-throated Warbler has brighter yellow eye-ring. The male Pine Warbler has streaked yellow breast and not as much white on its belly.
Image by: 1) Dominic Sherony - Michigan  2, 7, 8) Dick Daniels - North Carolibna   3, 4) Vicki DeLoach - Georgia    5) Ken Thomas - North Carolina 6) Ken Schneider - Florida 
1) Juvenile   2) Female


Warbler, Prairie  Setophaga discolor   Found: North America, Caribbean
The Prairie Warbler has olive upperparts with rusty streaks on the back, yellow underparts, dark streaks on the flanks, yellow line above the eye, a dark line through it, and a yellow spot below it. Coloring is duller in female and immatures.  
Similar to: Magnolia Warbler. Magnolia Warbler has darker back and tail. Magnolia Warbler also has white wing-bars.
Similar to: Palm Warbler. Adult Prairie Warbler has bolder black stripes on sides than does adult Palm Warbler. Juvenile Prairie Warbler lacks black side stripes and my be confused with the yellow type of nonbreeding Palm Warbler, but juvenile Prairie has more white around the eyes.
Image by:  1) Linda Tanner  2) Ken Schneider - Florida female  3) Bill Lynch - New Jersey   4) Wolfgang Wander   5) Steve Maslowski, USFWS  6, 7) New Jersy Birds 
1) Juvenile  2, 3) Female  4 - 6) Male



Warbler, Townsend's  Setophaga townsendi  Found: North America
The Townsend's Warbler has olive upperparts with black streaks on their backs and flanks, white wing bars, yellow face with a black stripe across their cheeks, thin pointed bill, white belly. Adult male has black cap, black throat, yellow lower breast; female has dark cap,yellow throat. Immature birds similar to females with a dark green cap and cheeks.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler
Image by: 1) Alan Vernon  2) Slodocent  3) Greg7  4) Maggie Smith


Warbler, Yellow  Setophaga (petechia)  aestiva Found: The Americas
The (Northern) Yellow Warbler breeds in the whole of temperate North America as far south as central Mexico in open, often wet, woods or shrub. It is migratory, wintering in Central and South America.
Closely related: Golden Warbler. Considered as Setophaga petechia or subspecies Setophaga petechia petechia.
Closely related: Mangrove Warbler. Considered as Setophaga erithachorides or Setophaga petechia erithachorides.
Similar to: Wilson's Warbler. Yellow Warbler has yellow edges to the wings which distinguishes it from female Wilson's Warbler.
Image by: 1) Fred Deines, USFWS - Alaska  female  2) Mdf - Ontario male  3) New Jersy Birds  4)Laura Gooch - Ohio  5, 6) Dick Daniels - Panama City, Panama
1) Female   2, 3, 4) Male  



Warbler, Yellow-rumped, Audubon's Setophaga coronata Found: North America, West Indies
Similar to: Palm Warbler. Nonbreeding Pine Warbler has eye-line; Yellow-rumped Warbler does not have eye-line.
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Warbler, Myrtle. Same species, different race. Yellow throat versus white throat.
Image by:  1, 2) Maggie Smith - California  3) Mike Baird - California  4, 5) Dick - Wyoming



Warbler, Yellow-rumped, Myrtle Setophaga coronata Found: North America
Similar to: Yellow-rumped Warbler, Audubon's. Same species, different race. Yellow throat versus white throat.
Image by: 1) Cephas - Quebec  2) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  3) Mdf - Ontario  4) Dick Daniels - Oak Island, North Carolina   5) Manjith Kainickara - Ontario  6) Len Blumin - California  7, 8. 9) Dick - North Carolina




Warbler, Yellow-throated  Setophaga dominica  Found: North America to Costa Rica, Caribbean
The breeding male Yellow-throated Warbler has gray upperparts and wings, white wing bars, yellow throat and uppper breast, rest of underparts are white, flanks are streaked with black, head strongly patterned in black and white, long supercilium.  Females, immatures and non-breeding males have less crisply defined head pattern, duller yellows, lighter blacks.
Similar to Grace's Warbler. Yellow-throated Warbler has more black around its cheek than Grace's Warbler.
Image by: 1) Seabrooke Leckie  2) Phil Brown  3) Shell Game - Florida 4) New Jersy Birds



Genus Vermivora

Warbler, Blue-winged  Vermivora cyanoptera  Found: North America to Panama
The blue-winged Warbler has yellow upperparts and underparts. gray wings, white wing bars, black eye stripe. Females are duller, but otherwise similar.
Similar to: Golden-winged Warbler. The Blue-winged Warber and Golden-winged Warbler are closely related. Their ranges are very similar and they often form hybirds.
Image by: 1) Joseph Pescatore  2) Wwcsig - New York  3) Larry Meade - Virginia  4) Brian McClure   5)  Linda Ruth  6) Richard Sieemann - Ohio  
5) Lawrences's Warbler (Blue-winged Golden-winged cross)  6) Brewster's Warbler (Blue-winged Golden-winged cross)  3)



Warbler, Golden-winged   Vermivora chrysoptera  Found: east North America to northwest South America
The Golden-winged Warbler has grayish white underparts, white under the tail, long slender bill. The male has black throat, black ear patch bordered in white, yellow crown, yellow wing patch. Females are similar, but the black is replaced with light gray.
Similar to: Blue-winged Warbler. The Blue-winged Warber and Golden-winged Warbler are closely related. Their ranges are very similar and they often form hybirds.
Warbler's with black throats: Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler, Hermit Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Townsend's Warbler
Image by: 1) Andy Jones - Ohio  2) Big Dipper2 - Missouri   3) Champagne for monkeys - North Carolina  4) Amy McAndrews - Ontario
1) Female  2, 3, 4) Male





KINGLETs

Order Passeriformes    Family Regulidae

The Kinglets (little kings) are so named because of their bold crowns.


Genus Regulus

Kinglet, Golden-crowned  Regulus satrapa  Found: North America
The Golden-crowned Kinglet has olive-gray, upperparts, white underparts, thin bills, short tails, white wing bars, black stripe through the eyes, yellow crown surrounded by black. The adult male has an orange patch in the middle of the yellow crown.
Similar to: Ruby-crowned Kinglet.  Golden-crowned Kinglet gold stripe on head; male Ruby-crowned has red crown patch, but it is usually hidden. Golden-crowned Kinglet has dark eye-stripe, Ruby-crowned Kinglet has white eye-ring.
Image by: 1) Kelly Azar - Pennsylvania  2) Brendan Lally - British Columbia
    3, 4, 5) Dick Daniels - Scotland Neck, North Carolina  



Kinglet, Ruby-crowned  Regulus calendula   Found: North America to Guatemala, Caribbean
The Ruby-crowned Kinglet has olive-green plumage, two white wing bars, white eye-ring. Males have a red crown patch, which is usually concealed. The sexes are identical (apart from the crown), and juveniles are similar in plumage to adults.
Similar to: Golden-crowned Kinglet.  Golden-crowned Kinglet gold stripe on head; male Ruby-crowned has red crown patch, but it is usually hidden. Golden-crowned Kinglet has dark eye-stripe, Ruby-crowned Kinglet has white eye-ring.
Similar to: Hutton's Vireo. Hutton's Vireo has thick bill; Ruby-crowned Kinglet has thin bill. Ruby-crowned Vireo has black wing-bar (behind a white bar); Hutton's Vireo does not have black wing-bar. Hutton's Vireo considerably larger than Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Both do frequent wing flicking, but the Kinglet flicks more often.
Image by:  1) Winnu   2, 3) Alan D Wilson - Serpentine Wildlife Area, Surrey, British Columbia   4) New Jersy Birds  5) Dick Daniels - Wyoming   6) Charlie Westerinen - American River at Carmichael, California 
1) Note the ruby crown






New World WARBLERs

Order Passeriformes    Family Peucedramidae - 1 Genus

Genus Peucedramus - 1 species

Warbler, Olive   Peucedramus taeniatus   Found: southwest United States, Central America
The Olive Warbler has mostly gray upperparts and lowerparts, some olive-green on the wings, two white wing bars. The male has orange head and breast, black patch through the eye. In the female and juvenile, the orange is replaced by yellow, and the black mask is more diffuse.
Image by: 1) Tony Morris - Arizona  2) Mark Watson - Arizona  3) Amy McAndrews - Mexico






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