GRUIFORMES

Gruiformes means "crane-like",  The order include 14 species of large cranes, about 145 species of smaller crakes and rails, as well as a variety of families comprising a small number of species.

Guiformes has the following families
Aramidae: limpkin
Gruidae: cranes
Heliornithidae: finfoots
Psophiidae: trumpeters
Rallidae: coots, gallinules, moorhens
Rallidae: crakes, rails
Sarothruridae: flufftails


   Family Gruidae: Cranes

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds . Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. They are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects, to grain, berries, and plants. During breeding season cranes are territorial, other times they are sociable and form groups.


Genus Anthropoides
This genus contains the Blue Crane and Demoiselle Crane. They are birds of the dry, grassy uplands which feed on seeds and insects and spend little time in wetlands.

Crane, Blue also Stanley Crane   Anthropoides paradisea   Found: Africa
The Blue Crane has pale blue-gray plumage; light gray to whitish crown, face; gray bill with pink tinge; relatively large head in proportion to its neck.
Image by: 1, 2) Dick Daniels - Birds of Eden, South Africa   3) Dick on road from Swellendam to De Hoop, South Africa
    4) Dick - San Diego Zoo  5) Dick - National Zoo, Washington DC  6) Sandy Cole - Tenikwa, South Africa



Crane, Demoiselle  Anthropoides virgo  Found: Asia, Africa
The Demoiselle Crane has a blackish-gray head, neck; long white neck stripe; blue-gray body. It is a relatively small crane.
Image by 1, 2) Sandy Cole - Sylvan Heights   3, 4, 5, 6, 7) Dick Daniels - Sylvan Heights   8) Dick - San Diego Zoo



Genus Balearica
The crowned cranes are the only cranes that can roost in trees,

Crane, Black Crowned-   Balearica pavonina  Found: Africa
Similar to: Grey Crowned-Crane. Grey Crowned-Crane has white cheek with red at cheek top; Black-crowned Crane has pinkish check, with white at cheek top.
Image by: Fabienkhan


Crane, Grey Crowned- Balearica regulorum  Found: Africa
Similar to: Black Crowned-Crane. Grey Crowned-Crane has white cheek with red at cheek top; Black-crowned Crane has pinkish check, with white at cheek top.
Image by: 1, 2) Dick Daniels - Tanzania  3, 5) Dick - Jacksonville Zoo - Florida    4) Sandy Cole - Birds of Eden, South Africa   6) Dick - Flamingos Wildlife Preserve




Genus Bugeranus -1 species

Crane, Wattled  Bugeranus carunculatus  Found: Africa
The Wattled Crane has gray back, wings, crown; white lower head, neck, wattles, upper breast; black lower breast.
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - National Zoo in Washington, DC   2, 3) Dick - Jacksonville Zoo, Florida   4) Charlie Westerinen - Okavango Delta in Botswana



Genus Grus

Brogla Grus rubicunda   Found: Australia  
The Brogla has mainly gray plumage; gray-green skin covered crown; red face, cheeks, throat pouch; gray ear coverts; grayish-green bill; yellowish-orange iris; grayish-black legs.
Similar to: Sarus Crane. Red on Sarus Crane extends down the neck; Red  on Brogla Crane stops before neck.
Image by: 1) John Gould   2) Dick Daniels - Featherdale Wildlife Park, Australia    3) Jjron - Healesville, Victoria, Australia  4) David Cook - Beerwah, Queensland, Australia


Crane, Black-necked  Grus nigricollis  Found: Asia 
The Black-necked Crane has mainly gray plumage; black head, neck; black tail.
Similar to: Common Crane. Black-necked Crane has all black neck; Commone Crane has gray and black neck. Black-necked Crane has black tail; Common Crane has gray tail.
Image by: 1) Eric Kilby - Stone Zoo  2) Eric Savage - Bronx Zoo  3) Ed Gaillard - Bronx Zoo 


Crane, Common also Eurasian Crane  Grus grus   Found: Europe, Asia 
The Common Crane has mainly gray plumage, darkest on the rump, palest on breast and wings; blackish forehead and lores; red crown.
Similar to: Black-necked Crane. Black-necked Crane has all black neck; Commone Crane has gray and black neck. Black-necked Crane has black tail; Common Crane has gray tail.
Image by: 1) Snapp3r  2) Marek Szczepanek   3) Kunan Naik


Crane, Hooded  Grus monacha  Found: Asia 
The Hooded Crane has a dark gray body; white upper neck; dark gray lower neck; white head with bare red skin above the eye.
Image by: 1) TomoSuke214 - Japan  2) Scorpions and Centaurs - Denver Zoo  3) Marcel Holyoak - Japan


Crane, Red-crowned  Grus japonensis   Found: Asia
The male Red-crowned Crane  has red bare skin on crown; mainly white plumage; black cheeks, most of neck, tail; greenish bill; dark brown iris; blackish-gray legs. Female similar except grey cheeks, neck.
Image by: 1) KCZooFan   2) Mike Souza


Crane, Sandhill Grus canadensis   Found: North America, Asia (northeast Siberia)
The Sandhill Crane has mainly gray plumage; red forehead;  white cheeks; long dark bill. During breading season the gray is rusty stained. Juvenile has reddish-brown upperparts; lacks red forehead.
Image by:  1) tgreyfox   2, 4) Dick Daniels - Virginia  3) Dick - Virginia   5, 6) Dick - Florida   7) Dick - Wyoming   8) Aron Lembke - Newport, North Carolina  9) David Daniels - Florida
1) Juvenile


Crane, Sarus  Grus antigone  Found: Asia, Australia
The Sarus Crane has mainly gray plumage; red head with gray crown and gray ear covert; red upper neck; orange-red iris; greenish-gray bill; pink legs; black wingtips can be seen in flight. Juvenile has yellowish base to bill.
Similar to: Brogla. Red on Sarus Crane extends down the neck; Red  on Brogla Crane stops before neck.
Image by: 1, 3) Dick Daniels - Miami Zoo  2) Sandy Cole - Central Zoo of Nepal   4) JM Garg - India


Crane, Siberian  Grus leucogeranus  Found: Asia
The Siberian Crane has white plumage; bare red skin on forehead, face; dark bill; pinkish legs; black primary feathers.
Image by: 1) Global Environment Facility  2) BS Thurner Hof  3) Tomosuke214  4) Blake Matheson - CChina


Crane, White-naped  Grus vipio  Found: Asia
The White-naped Crane has gray body; white nape, rear of head; red face patch; black fore-neck; pinkish legs.
Image by:  1) Bakker 2, 3) Sandy Cole - Central Zoo of Nepal  4) Sandy Cole - Central Zoo of Nepal


Crane, Whooping Grus americana   Found: North America
The Whooping Crane has white plumage; red crown; long dark and pointed bill; black wing tips are visible in flight. Juvenile has cinnamon-brown plumage.
Image by: 1, 3) Dick Daniels - Sylvan Heights  2) John Noll, USDA- Texas  4) Sandy Cole - Sylvan Heights
      5) Lyn Anynom   6) Steve Gifford, USFWD - Indiana  7)  Wisconsin Dept. of Nat. Resources
1) Juvenile  2) Family  7) From Wisconsin to Florida to introduce into wild 3, 4) The juvenile of 1) grew into this adult.






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