GALLIFORMES of The World

Galliformes are heavy-bodied ground-feeding domestic or game birds. Most are plump-bodied with thick necks and moderately long legs, and have rounded and rather short wings. They do not fly well if at all, but walk and run instead for transportation. These birds vary greatly in size from 12-120 cm. Many adult males have one to several sharp horny spurs on the back of each leg, which they use for fighting. They can be found worldwide and in a variety of habitats, including forests, deserts, and meadows. Male courtship behavior includes elaborate visual displays of plumage. Gallinaceous birds feed on a variety of plant and animal material, which may include fruits, seeds, leaves, shoots, flowers, tubers, roots, insects, snails, worms, lizards, snakes, small rodents, and eggs.

Family Phasianidae: francolin, grouse, partridge, pheasant, Old World quail.
Family Cracidae: chachalac, curassow, guan.

New World Quail

Order Galliformes    Family Odontophoridae

New World quails are generally short winged, necked and tailed. The bills are short, slightly curved and serrated. The legs are short and powerful, and lack the spurs of many Old World galliforms. Although they are capable of short bursts of strong flight New World quails prefer to walk, and will run from danger, taking off explosively only as a last resort. Plumage varies from dull to spectacular, and many species have ornamental crests or plumes on the head. There is moderate sexual dichromisim in plumage, with males having brighter plumage. They are shy diurnal birds and generally live on the ground. They are generalists with regards to their diet, taking insects, seeds, vegetation and tubers.

New World Quails and Old World Quails are not closely related, but because of convergent evolution they have similar appearances and behavior.

Genus Callipepla

Quail, California Callipepla californica   Found: North America and Central America. Introduced in New Zealand
The California Quail has brown flanks with white streaks. Male has brown back; black crest; dark brown crown; black face; gray breast; light brown belly. Female are mainly gray-brown with light colored belly.
Similar to
: Gambel's Quail.  Gambel's Quail has a more southerly distribution, a longer crest (2.5 inches), a brighter head and a scalier appearance than California Quail [Wikipedia].
Similar to: Mountain Quail. California Quail has a curved tuft on top of head; Mountain Quail has a straight tuft on top of head.
Similar to: Northern Bobwhite. Ranges do not overlap.>
Image by: 1, 2, 4, 5) Alan D Wilson - Vernon, British Columbia   3) Dick Daniels - New Zealand  6) Jim Mullhaupi
1, 2, 3) Female  4, 5, 6) Male



Quail, Elegant   Callipepla douglasii  Found: Mexico
The male Elegant Quail has mainly gray plumage; black, brown, white, and chestnut striation and spots; golden buff crest, Female has mainly gray plumage; black, brown, and white striation and spots; gray crest.
Image by: 1, 2) Jorge_Montejo - Sonora, Mexico


Quail, Gambel's Callipepla gambelii Found: North America
The Gambrel's Quail has bluish-gray plumage on much of its body. Male has copper feathers on top of head; black face; white stripes above eyes;
Similar to: California Quail.  Gambel's Quail has a more southerly distribution, a longer crest (2.5 inches), a brighter head and a scalier appearance than California Quail.
Image by: 1, 2, 4, 8) Dick Daniels - Arizona at Desert Botantical Gardens   3) Alan D Wilson - New Mexico   5, 6) Ted Grussing in Arizona  9) Dick - the North Carolina Zoo  
1, 2) Juvenile  3, 4) Female   5 - 8) Male


Quail, Scaled Callipepla squamata Found: North America
This bird is named for the scaly appearance of its breast and back feathers. Along with its scaly markings, the bird is easily identified by its white crest that resembles a tuft of cotton. [Wikipedia]
Image by: 1) Brian Ungard - New Mexico 2) Ron_Knight - Colorado  3) Gary Kramer USDA - New Mexico



Genus Colinus

Bobwhite, Black-throated also Yucatan Bobwhite  Colinus nigrogularis  Found: Mexico, Central America
The male Black-throated Bobwhite has pale gray, cinnamon-rufous, black and white upperparts; white underparts with black scallops; reddish under-tail coverts; buff throat, supercilium; dark crown, eye-line. Female similar but cinnamon-rufous of upperparts replaced with gray.
Image by: 1) Amy_McAndrews - Yucatan (Mexico)


Bobwhite, Crested  Colinus cristatus  Found: Costa Rica, Panama, northern South America
The Crested Bobwhite has generally brown plumage; black and white spots on nape, flanks; white, buffy, or fufous face and throat. Northern members only small crest on rear of crown; white or light buff face marking. Southern members have longer crest; usully rufous face.
Image by: 1) Steve_Garvie - Costa Rica  2) Daisyree Bakker - Netherland Antiles  3) Barloventomagico - Venezuela


Bobwhite, Northern Colinus virginianus  Found: North America and Central America
The male Northern Bobwhite has mainly rufous plumage with gray mottling on wings; white throat; broad white supercilium bordered by black; white scalloped stripes on flanks; black scallops on whitish underparts. Female similar but duller; buff throat and brow without black border.
Similar to: California Quail. Ranges do not overlap.
Similar to: Ruffed Grouse. Male Northern Bobwhite have a white throat and brow stripe bordered by black. Female Northern Bobwhite have tan brow stripe. Ruffed Grouse have plain face.
Image by:  1, 7) Dick Daniels - Sylvan Heights   2) Dick - Arizona at Desert Museum   3) Erin and Lance Willet 4) Les Howard, Georgia   5, 6, 8) Dick Daniels - Cape Fear Acquarium, NC 
1, 2, 3) Female  5 - 8) Male



Genus Cyrtonyx

Quail, Montezuma  Cyrtonyx montezumae  Found: Mexico
The Montezuma Qual has tan upperparts with longitudinal light buff streaks or obong black  spots arrranged in bars; tan plume. Male has dark blue-gray sides with white spot; center of underparts dark brown (northern) or lighter tawny (southern); swirling black-and-white face pattern.
Similar to: Ocellated Quail. Ocellated Quail has reduced white spotting on the sides than Montezuma Quail, while chestnut and black bars adorn the flanks, Ocellated Quail range separated from that of the Montezuma Quail by the broad Isthmus of Tehuantepec
Image by: 1) Gregory_Smith  2) Fuertes  3) Jerry_Oldenettel  4) Dominic_Sherony  5) Dick Daniels - Sylvan Heights
1) Female 2, 3, 4, 5) Male


Quail, Ocellated  Cyrtonyx ocellatus  Found: Mexico, Central America
Similar to: Montezuma Quail. Ocellated Quail has reduced white spotting on the sides than Montezuma Quail, while chestnut and black bars adorn the flanks, Ocellated Quail range separated from that of the Montezuma Quail by the broad Isthmus of Tehuantepec
Image by: 1) John_Van_Dort



Genus Dactylortyx - 1 species

Quail, Singing  Dactylortyx thoracicus  Found: Mexico, Central America
Image by: 1) Amy_McAndrews - Mexico  2) Jerry_Oldenettel - Mexico



Genus Dendrortyx
The Wood-Partridge

Partridge, Bearded Wood-  Dendrortyx barbatus  Found: eastern Mexico
The Bearded Wood-Partridge has mainly brownish with black and buff mottling; bluish-gray head, neck; mainly cinnamon underparts.
Image by: 1) Alberto Lobato


Partridge, Buffy-crowned Wood-  Dendrortyx leucophrys  Found: Mexico, Central America
The Buffy-crowned Wood-Partridge has a chicken-like appearance due to its long tail and legs. Its pale iris and streaked neck differentiates it from other quail like birds.
Image by: 1) Immelbatoast  2) David_Arias


Partridge, Long-tailed Wood-  Dendrortyx macroura  Found: Mexico
The Long-tailed Wood-Partridge has back feathers edged with gray; black head and neck wtih white superciliary and malar stripes; long tail.
Image by: 1) Biodiversity_Heritage_Library  2) Dan_Forester



Genus Odontophorus

Quail, Black-breasted Wood-   Odontophorus leucolaemus   Found: Costa Rica, Panama
The Black-breasted Wood-Quail has dark brown upperparts; black face, underparts; white throat of variable size.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2) David_Rodríguez_Arias - Costa Rica


Quail, Black-eared Wood-   Odontophorus melanotis   Found: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
The Black-eared Wood-Quail has blackish throat, face.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans


Quail, Black-fronted Wood-   Odontophorus atrifrons   Found: Columbia, Venezuela
The Black-fronted Quail has mainly gray-brown plumage; black forehead, face, throat; dark rufous crest. No  range overlap with other Odontophorus.
Image by: 1) Juan_Arango


Quail, Chestnut Wood-   Odontophorus hyperythrus   Found: Columbia
The Chestnut Wood-Quail has brown upperparts with small white spots; chestnut head, underparts. Female similar to male but with gray belly.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi


Quail, Dark-backed Wood-   Odontophorus melanonotus   Found: Columbia, Ecuador
The Dark-backed Wood-Quail has mainly dark brown plumage; rufous-chestnut throat, breast.
Image by: 1) Francesco_Veronesi  2) Jerry_Oldenettel - Ecuador


Quail, Gorgeted Wood-   Odontophorus strophium   Found: Columbia
The Gorgeted Wood-Quail has brown upperparts; short blackish-brown crest; black-and-white face; black throat; white collar; rufous-brown underparts
Image by: 1) Salvatore_Chamu  2) proaves.org


Quail, Marbled Wood-   Odontophorus gujanensis   Found: Costa Rica, Panama, northern South America
The Marbled Wood-Quail plumage is variegated with browns and buffs flecked with black. It has finely barred with buff or brownish underparts; dark erectile crest; bright orange-red orbital skin.
Similar to: Spot-winged Wood-Quail. Spot-winged Wood-Quail has grayer underparts than Marbled Wood-Quail.
Image by: 1) Smithsonian Wild - Peru


Quail, Rufous-fronted Wood-   Odontophorus erythrops   Found: Columbia. Ecuador
The Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail has rufous forehead, underparts; black throat. Some subspecies have white band across throat.
Image by: 1) John_Gerrard_Keulemans  2) Yamil_Saenz


Quail, Rufous-breasted Wood-   Odontophorus speciosus   Found: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
The Rufous-breasted Wood-Quail has rufous underparts (2 sub-species) or just the breast rufous (1 subspecies); white supercilium.
Image by: 1) Fernando_Angulo


Quail, Spot-winged Wood- Odontophorus capueira   Found: South America
Similar to: Marbled Wood-Quail. Spot-winged Wood-Quail has grayer underparts than Marbled Wood-Quail.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dario Sanches - São Paulo, Brazil


Quail, Spotted Wood-   Odontophorus guttatus   Found: Mexico, Central America
The Spotted Wood-Quail has dark brown upperparts with black and rufous flecking; dark brown forehead; black throat with white streaks; olive brown or rufous underparts; bold white spots on underparts;
Image by: 1) John_Whitaker - Costa Rica  2) Barbara_Dye - Costa Rica


Quail, Starred Wood-   Odontophorus stellatus   Found: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru
Image by: 1) Salvatore_Chamu  2) Roger_Wasley


Quail, Stripe-faced Wood-   Odontophorus balliviani   Found: in the Yungas of Bolivia and Peru
Image by: 1) Salvatore_Chamu


Quail, Tacarcuna Wood-   Odontophorus dialeucos   Found: mountains of Columbia, Panama
The Tacarcuna Wood-Quail has brown-and-white pluamge; vermicualted black upperparts becoming buffy at hind-neck; white supercilium, throat, upper-breast; black band on lower throat.
Image by: 1) birdlife


Quail, Venezuelan Wood-   Odontophorus columbianus   Found: Venezuela
Image by: 1) Salvatore_Chamu  2) Jerry_Oldenettel



Genus Oreortyx - 1 species

Quail, Mountain  Oreortyx pictus  Found: western North America
The Mountain Quail have brow nupperparts, face; gray breast; heavily white barred belly; straight tuft on top of head (longer on male).
Similar to
: California Quail. California Quail has a curved tuft on top of head; Mountain Quail has a straight tuft on top of head.
Image by: 1, 2) George Lamson - Donner, California  3) USFWS



Genus Philortyx - 1 species

Quail, Banded   Philortyx fasciatus   Found: Mexico
The Banded Quail has light brown upperparts;  dark crest; black-and-white barred underparts - heavy on flanks and belly.
Image by: 1) Free877



Genus Rhynchortyx - 1 species

Quail, Tawny-faced  Rhynchortyx cinctus  Found: Central America, Columbia
The male Tawny-faced Quail has rufous face; dark eye-line; gray breast; buff belly. Female has white post-eye stripe; brown head, breast; dark scaling over flanks, belly.
Image by: 1) Diego_Calderon  2) John_Gerrard_Keulemans 
1) Female 2) Male




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