The Columbiformes order contains just one family, the Columbidae which is comprised of dove and pigeon species. They have small heads,short legs, and four unwebbed toes. All Columbiformes are monogamous. Unlike most other birds they are capable of drinking by sucking up water, without needing to tilt the head back.

Order Columbiformes    Family Columbidae

Genus Alectroenas
The Blue-Pigeons occur widely the islands of the western Indian Ocean. Compared to other pigeons, they are medium to large sized. They appear to be closest related to the Fruit Doves.

Pigeon, Madagascar Blue-  Alectroenas madagascariensis  Found: Madagascar
Image by: 1) Niel Strickland  2) foto lulu  3) Jon Irvine

Genus Columba
Columba comprises a group of medium to large stout-bodied pigeons, often referred to as the typical pigeons. The terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used indiscriminately for smaller and larger Columbidae, respectively. Columba species are generally termed "pigeons", and in many cases wood-pigeons. Predominately found in Old World.

Dove, Lemon  also  Cinnamon Dove    Columba larvata  also Aplopelia larvata  Found: Africa
The male Lemon Dove has dark brown upperparts;  green on side of neck; white forehead, chin; black bill; red iris, feet. Female has lighter brown upperparts; dull gray forehead, chin.
Image by: 1, 2) DIck Daniels - Birds of Eden, South Africa   3) Authur Chapman - Birds of Eden
1, 2) Male

Dove, Rock also Rock Pigeon also Feral Pigeon Columba livia  Found: almost everywhere
The wild Rock Dove has pale gray plumage; 2 black wing bars. This species includes the domestic pigeon and escaped domestic pigeons have given rise to feral populations around the world.
Similar to: Band-tailed Pigeon. Band-trailed Pigeon has white stripe on nape; Rock Dove does not. Band-trailed Pigeon has yellow bill with black tip; Rock Dove does not have yellow on its bill.
Similar to: Stock Dove. Rock Dove has more substantial wing bars than Stock Dove. Stock Dove has obvious green neck patch.
Image by: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) Dick Daniels   2) Dick - North Carolina
1) This rock dove was Image on the cliffs of John O'Groats Scotland. The cliff residents, now scarce, are the ancestors of all domestic/feral pidgeons.  2) Feral Pigeon similar to wild rock dove.

The following subspecies are: Checkered, Pied

dark, white, white-breasted 
4) Madagascar

Dove, Stock Columba oenas    Found: Europe, Asia
The Stock Dove has gray plumage including gray rump; incomplete wing bars; iridescent green patch on side of neck.
Similar to: wild Rock Dove. Rock Dove has more substantial wing bars than Stock Dove. Stock Dove has obvious green neck patch.
Image by: 1, 3) Jim Gifford 2) Chris Cant - Cumbria, UK 

Pigeon, Afep  Columba unicincta  Found equatorial Africa
Image by: 1) Tom Tarrant

Pigeon, Cameroon also Cameroon Olive-Pigeon  Columba sjostedti  Found: Africa Image by: 1) Seth of Rabi - Nigeria

Pigeon, Common Wood  also  Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus   Found: Europe, Asia, Africa
The Common Wood Pigeon  has gray upperparts, head; pinkish breast; white spot on side of neck; white on wing.
Image by: 1) Dick - Scotland  2, 3) Dick Daniels - England   4) Algirdas 
1) Juvenile

Pigeon, Comoros Olive- Columba pollenii   Found: Indian Ocean islands of southeast Africa Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans

Pigeon, Eastern Bronze-naped  also  Delegorgue's Pigeon  Columba delegorguei Found: Africa
The Eastern Bronze-naped Pigeon has dark gray upperparts; lighter gray underparts may be tinged with rufous. Male has white collar on hind-neck
Bronze-naped Pigeons: Columba delegorguei  Columba iriditorques   Columba malherbii
Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans  2) Alan Manson
1) Left - female; right - male

Pigeon, Rameron  also African Olive-Pigeon  Columba arquatrix  Found: Africa
The Rameron Pigeon has maroon back, wings; shoulders heavily speckled with white spots; maroon underparts with white spots; gray head; dark gray under-wings, under-tails; yellow patches around eyes; yellow bill. feet.
Image by: 1) Matthew Hine  2, 4) Dick Daniels - San Diego Zoo  3) Sandy Cole - San Diego Zoo

Pigeon, São Tomé Bronze-naped  also  Island Bronze-naped Pigeon  Columba malherbii
Found: Equatorial Guinea and west coast islands of Africa Image by: 1) Muchaxo

Pigeon, Speckled also African Rock Dove  Columba guinea   Found: Africa
The Speckled Pigeon has rufous back; rufous wings with white speckles; blue-gray remainder of upperparts; blue-gray underparts; gray head with red patch around eye; brownish neck with light colored streaks; red legs.
Image by: 1, 3) Kjeuring - Table Mountain Cape Town   2, 4, 5) Dick Daniels - Cape Town, South Africa  6) Cristiano Crolle - Cape Town, South Africa.

Pigeon, Western Bronze-naped   also  Bronze-naped Pigeon Columba iriditorques Found: Africa Image by: 1) John Gerrard Keulemans

Pigeon, White-collared  Columba albitorques  Found: highlands in Eritrea and Ethiopia.
The White-collared Pigeon  has mainly gray-brown plumage; slate- gray head; white collar; white streaked neck.
Image by: 1) Alastair Rae - Ethiopia  2) Kristian Svennson

Pigeon, White-naped   Columba albinucha  Found: Cameroon, DR Congo, Uganda
Image by: 1) Salvatore Chamu

Genus Nesoenas
The Pink Pigeon and Madagascar Turtle-Dove and appear to be closely related. They seem to have split from their relatives in Columba and Streptopelia about 10 million years ago. Some thus place them in their on genus - Nesoenas. Other place them in Columba or Streptopelia.

Dove, Madagascar Turtle-  also  Malagasy Turtle-Dove   Nesoenas picturata  Found: Madagascar and nearby islands
Image by: 1) Marion Schneider and Christoph Aistleitner - Seychelles  2) Roland ZH 
   3, 4) Dick Daniels - Parc Tsarasaotra (open bird sanctury in Antananrivo)

Pigeon, Pink  Nesoenas mayeri  Found: Mauritius
The Pink Pigeon has pink head, shoulders, underparts, bill, feet; dark brown wings; broad reddish-brown tail; dark brown eyes; red eye-ring.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - San Diego Zoo

Genus Oena - 1 species

Dove, Namaqua  Oena capensis  Found: Africa
The Namaqua Dove has gray upperparts; chestnut primary feathers; white belly. Male has black face, throat, breast; yellow and red bill. Female lacks the black and has gray bill with red base.
Image by: 1, 2, 3) Dick Daniels - Madagascar  4) Ruby 1x2
1) Female  2, 3, 4) Male

Genus Streptopelia
These are mainly slim, small to medium-sized species. The upperparts tend to be pale brown, and the underparts are often a shade of pink. Many have a characteristic black-and-white patch on the neck, and monotonous cooing songs.

Dove, Adamawa Turtle  Streptopelia hypopyrrha  Found: Africa
Image by: 1) Nigel Voaden - Cameroon  2) Thom Haslam - Gabia 3) Seth of Rabi - Nigeria

Dove, African Collared-  Streptopelia roseogrisea  Found: Africa
the African Collared-Dove has pale grayish-brown upperparts; pinkinsh head, neck; breast; shading to white on on chin, belly.
Image by: 1) Ron Knight  2) Arthur Chapman

Dove, European Turtle-  also Turtle Dove  Streptopelia turtur  Found: Europe, Africa
The European Turtle-Dove has black-and-white striped neck patch; brown mottled back, wings; light throat; pinkish breast; white belly; pale gray flanks.
Image by: 1, 2) Miguel Gonzlez Novo  3) Skolan 124  4) Dick - Sylvan Heights

Dove, Mourning Collared- also African Mourning Dove  Streptopelia decipiens   Found: Africa
The Mourning Collared-Dove has pale brown back, wings, tail; gray head; pink breast shading to pale gray on belly; black hind neck patch edged with white; red legs.
Image by: 1) Christophe Eyquem - Samburu, Kenya  2) Lip Kee Yap - Dove,_African_Mourning    3) Carol Foil - Lake Nakuru National Park

Dove, Barbary  also  Ringneck Dove also Ringed Turtle-Dove  Streptopelia risoria  Found: Domesticated
Similar to: Eurasian Collared-Dove. The Ringed Turtle-Dove is a domesticated dove that may have descended from the Eurasian Collared-Dove.
Image by:  1) Sandy Cole - World of Birds, Africa  2) Dick Daniels - Puerto Rico  3) Dick - San Diego

Dove, Dusky Turtle-  Streptopelia lugens  Found: Africa
Image by: 1) Dick Daniels - specimen in Nairobi National Museum, Kenya  2) Tom Tarrant - Uganda
1) Bare area around eye is not realistic.

Dove, Laughing Streptopelia senegalensis      Found: Africa, Australia, India
The Laughing Dove has brownish upperpart with a bluish-gray band along the wing; pinkish head, underparts; checkered rufous-gray patch on side of neck.
Image by: 1) Sandeep Thoppil - Gaborone Game Reserve, Botswana   2) J M Garg   3) Frank Vassen  4) Arthur Chapman     5) Dick Daniels - Tanzania   6, 7) Dick - South Africa  8) Sandy Cole - San Diego Zoo

Dove, Red-eyed Streptopelia semitorquata   Found: Africa
The Red-eye Dove has pale brown upperparts; pink head with gray face; pink underparts; black hind neck patch edged with white; white terminal band on under-tail; red eyes which may appear black at a distance; red legs.
Image by:  1, 2) Dick Daniels - Cape Town, South Africa  3) Dick - Masai Mara Garme Reserve, Kenya

Dove, Ring-necked also Cape Turtle Dove Streptopelia capicola   Found: Africa
The Ring-necked Dove has pale brownish-gray plumage with darker back and wings; partial black collar at back of neck.
Image by: 1) Arno Meintjes   2) Erik A Drablos - Masai Mara, Kenya  3, 4) Dick Daniels- Johannesburg, South Africa

Dove, Vinaceous  Streptopelia vinacea  Found: Africa
The vinaceous Dove has pale brown upperparts; pale pinkish-gray head, underparts; red legs.
Image by: 1) Thomas Brown - Africa  2) David Cook - Uganda

Genus Treron
Green pigeons are distributed across Asia and Africa. Their green coloration comes from a carotenoid pigment in their diet. They eat fruit, nuts, and/or seeds.

Pigeon, African Green-  Treron calvus  Found: Africa
The African Green-Pigeon has grayish-green to yellowish-green upperparts; maroon shoulder patches; grayish-green underparts; rufous undertail coverts; bill red at base, white at tip. Mainly eat fruit such as figs.
Image by: 1) Arno Meintjes  2, 3) Dick Daniels - Kruger National Park, South Africa   4) Johann du Preez - Kruger National Park

Pigeon, Bruce's Green-  Treron waalia  Found: Africa
Olive-Pigeons: Columba arquatrix Columba pollenii  Columba sjostedti  Columba thomensis
The Bruce's Green-Pigeon has olive-green upperparts; darker wings; greenish-gray head, neck, upper-breast; yellow lower-breast and belly. It specialises on eating the fruits of a single species of fig tree, Ficus platphylla.
Image by: 1, 2) Trisha Shears - Cincinnati Zoo

Pigeon, Madagascar Green
- Treron australis  Found: Madagascar, Comoros, Mayotte
Image by: 1) Frank Vassen  2) Paul Ellis - Madagascar

Pigeon, Pemba Green-  Treron pembaensis  Found: Tanzania
Image by: 1) Philippe Dandois

Pigeon, Sao Tome Green-  Treron sanctithomae  Found: São Tomé and Príncipe (off west equatorial Africa)
Image by: 1) Muchaxo

Genus Turtur
Found: Africa

Dove, Black-billed Wood-  Turtur abyssinicus   Found: Africa
The Black-billed Wood-Dove has black bill; pale gray-brown upperparts; dark metallic patches on folded wings; bluish-gray crown, forehead, nape; pinkish underparts becoming paler on belly.
Image by: 1) Tom Tarrant - Uganda    2) Thomas Brown - Gambia

Dove, Blue-headed Wood-  Turtur brehmeri  Found; Africa
The Blue-headed Wood-Dove has mainly rufous-brown plumage; bluish-gray head; iridescent green wing patches; reddish bill; red feet.
Image by: 1) Bart Wurstenn - D Congo  2) Stavenn

Dove, Blue-spotted Wood- Turtur afer  Found: Africa
The Blue-spotted Wood-Dove has brown upperparts; blue spots on wings; bluish-gray forehead, crown, nape; pink chin, upper-breast;; lighter belly; dark bill with yellow tip.
Similar to: Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove. Blue-spotted Wood-Dove has yellow tipped bill; Emerald-spotted Wood-dove has dark bill with no yellow tip. Emerald-spotted prefers more humid habit.
Image by: 1) Joseph Mochoge - Kenya  2) Thomas Brown - Gambia  3) Allan Hopkins - Gambia

Dove, Emerald-spotted Wood-  Turtur chalcospilos  Found: Africa
The Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove has gray-brown hind-neck, mantle, wings, tail; bluish-gray forehead, crown, nape; blackish bands on lower back; purplish-pink underparts; lighter belly; dark bill with red base.
Similar to: Blue-spotted Wood-Dove. Blue-spotted Wood-Dove has yellow tipped bill; Emerald-spotted Wood-dove has dark bill with no yellow tip. Emerald-spotted prefers more humid habit.
Image by: 1) Arno Meintjes  2) Carol Foil - Kenya  3) Jerry Oldenettle - Botswana    4) Charlie Westerinen - Botswana  5, 6) Dick Daniels - Nairobi National Park, Kenya

Dove, Tambourine   Turtur tympanistria    Found: Africa (south of Sahara)
The male Tambourine Dove has grayish-brown upperparts; bray crown; white face, forehead, underparts; purple-red eye-ring, feet; purple bill. Female duller; white only on belly; pale gray-brown breast, face.
Image by: 1) Dave Curtis - Kenya  2) Joseph Mochoge - Eburu Kenya  3) Alan Manson - South Africa
1) Female   2, 3) Male

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